Next Article in Journal
Using Behavioral Nudges to Engage Pregnant Women in a Smoking Cessation Trial: An Online Field Quasi-Experiment
Previous Article in Journal
An Investigation of Healthcare Professionals’ Motivation in Public and Mission Hospitals in Meru County, Kenya
Article

Parental and Familial Factors Influencing Physical Activity Levels in Early Adolescence: A Prospective Study

1
PhD Program in Health Promotion and Cognitive Sciences, Department of Psychology Educational Science and Human Movement, Sport and Exercise Sciences Research Unit, University of Palermo, 90100 Palermo, Italy
2
Faculty of Science and Education, University of Mostar, 88000 Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina
3
Faculty of Kinesiology, University of Split, 21000 Split, Croatia
4
Faculty of Sport Faculty of Physical Education and Sports, University of Tuzla, 75000 Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Healthcare 2020, 8(4), 532; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare8040532
Received: 4 November 2020 / Revised: 24 November 2020 / Accepted: 1 December 2020 / Published: 2 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Factors and Global Health)
Parental/familial factors are important determinants of the physical activity level (PAL) in children and adolescents, but studies rarely prospectively evaluate their relationships. This study aimed to evaluate the changes in physical activity levels among adolescents from Bosnia and Herzegovina over a two-year period and to determine parental/familial predictors of PAL in early adolescence. A total of 651 participants (50.3% females) were tested at baseline (beginning of high school education; 14 years old on average) and at follow-up (approximately 20 months later). The predictors included sociodemographic characteristics (age, gender) and parental/familial factors (socioeconomic status of the family, maternal and paternal education, conflict with parents, parental absence from home, parental questioning, and parental monitoring). Physical activity levels were evidenced by the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents (PAQ-A; criterion). Boys were more active than girls, both at baseline (t-test = 3.09, p < 0.001) and at follow-up (t-test = 3.4, p < 0.001). Physical activity level decreased over the observed two-year period (t-test = 16.89, p < 0.001), especially in boys, which is probably a consequence of drop-out from the sport in this period. Logistic regression evidenced parental education as a positive predictor of physical activity level at baseline (OR [95% CI]; 1.38 [1.15–170], 1.35 [1.10–1.65]), and at follow-up (1.35 [1.11–1.69], 1.29 [1.09–1.59], for maternal and paternal education, respectively). Parents with a higher level of education are probably more informed about the importance of physical activity on health status, and thus transfer this information to their children as well. The age from 14 to 16 years is likely a critical period for maintaining physical activity levels in boys, while further studies of a younger age are necessary to evaluate the dynamics of changes in physical activity levels for girls. For maintaining physical activity levels in adolescence, special attention should be paid to children whose parents are less educated, and to inform them of the benefits of an appropriate physical activity level and its necessity for maintaining proper health and growth. View Full-Text
Keywords: physical activity; parental factor; adolescents; gender differences physical activity; parental factor; adolescents; gender differences
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Maric, D.; Kvesic, I.; Lujan, I.K.; Bianco, A.; Zenic, N.; Separovic, V.; Terzic, A.; Versic, S.; Sekulic, D. Parental and Familial Factors Influencing Physical Activity Levels in Early Adolescence: A Prospective Study. Healthcare 2020, 8, 532. https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare8040532

AMA Style

Maric D, Kvesic I, Lujan IK, Bianco A, Zenic N, Separovic V, Terzic A, Versic S, Sekulic D. Parental and Familial Factors Influencing Physical Activity Levels in Early Adolescence: A Prospective Study. Healthcare. 2020; 8(4):532. https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare8040532

Chicago/Turabian Style

Maric, Dora, Ivan Kvesic, Ivana K. Lujan, Antonino Bianco, Natasa Zenic, Vlatko Separovic, Admir Terzic, Sime Versic, and Damir Sekulic. 2020. "Parental and Familial Factors Influencing Physical Activity Levels in Early Adolescence: A Prospective Study" Healthcare 8, no. 4: 532. https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare8040532

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop