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Review

The Pathways between Cortisol-Related Regulation Genes and PTSD Psychotherapy

1
Medical Psychology Unit, Department of Clinical Neurosciences and Mental Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Al. Prof. Hernâni Monteiro, 4200-319 Porto, Portugal
2
i3S-Institute for Research and Innovation in Health, University of Porto, Rua Alfredo Allen, 208, 4200-135 Porto, Portugal
3
Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, São João Hospital University Centre, Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Al. Prof. Hernâni Monteiro, 4200-319 Porto, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Healthcare 2020, 8(4), 376; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare8040376
Received: 21 August 2020 / Revised: 24 September 2020 / Accepted: 24 September 2020 / Published: 1 October 2020
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) only develops after exposure to a traumatic event in some individuals. PTSD can be chronic and debilitating, and is associated with co-morbidities such as depression, substance use, and cardiometabolic disorders. One of the most important pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the development of PTSD and its subsequent maintenance is a dysfunctional hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis. The corticotrophin-releasing hormone, cortisol, glucocorticoid receptor (GR), and their respective genes are some of the mediators of PTSD’s pathophysiology. Several treatments are available, including medication and psychotherapies, although their success rate is limited. Some pharmacological therapies based on the HPA axis are currently being tested in clinical trials and changes in HPA axis biomarkers have been found to occur in response not only to pharmacological treatments, but also to psychotherapy—including the epigenetic modification of the GR gene. Psychotherapies are considered to be the first line treatments for PTSD in some guidelines, even though they are effective for some, but not for all patients with PTSD. This review aims to address how knowledge of the HPA axis-related genetic makeup can inform and predict the outcomes of psychotherapeutic treatments. View Full-Text
Keywords: posttraumatic stress disorder; psychotherapy; glucocorticoids; cortisol; glucocorticoid receptor; NR3C1; FKBP5 posttraumatic stress disorder; psychotherapy; glucocorticoids; cortisol; glucocorticoid receptor; NR3C1; FKBP5
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MDPI and ACS Style

Castro-Vale, I.; Carvalho, D. The Pathways between Cortisol-Related Regulation Genes and PTSD Psychotherapy. Healthcare 2020, 8, 376. https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare8040376

AMA Style

Castro-Vale I, Carvalho D. The Pathways between Cortisol-Related Regulation Genes and PTSD Psychotherapy. Healthcare. 2020; 8(4):376. https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare8040376

Chicago/Turabian Style

Castro-Vale, Ivone, and Davide Carvalho. 2020. "The Pathways between Cortisol-Related Regulation Genes and PTSD Psychotherapy" Healthcare 8, no. 4: 376. https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare8040376

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