The lack of basic water supply and treatment facilities during China’s urbanization and industrialization process has resulted in a large amount of wastewater pollution, with the most serious water diseases being water-borne endemic fluorosis and arsenic poisoning, which have affected more than 20 million people. This research therefore uses the improved modified undesirable dynamic network model to analyze data of 31 provincial administrative regions to focus on the associated effects and efficiency evaluation between wastewater pollution and water disease in China. The results show that the efficiency of water pollution disease in all four regions of the country and the total efficiency in the east, west, and central regions all show a decreasing trend, while the efficiency scores and rankings of all provinces and cities within the region fluctuate greatly. The eastern region with the most developed economy has the best overall performance, with higher efficiency in water consumption and water disease control. However, the efficiency of wastewater treatment in northeast China is stable and better. Given the high level of the nation’s economic development and the results of efficiency in water pollution and water diseases, improving the efficiency and quality of wastewater treatment in China is regarded as an important factor for achieving the strategic goal of green growth.
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