In long-term care facilities, elderly mistreatment occurs routinely and frequently. However, few studies have empirically explored the multifaceted risk factor of mistreatment. The purpose of this paper was to explore the factors affecting elderly mistreatment by care workers in Japanese long-term care facilities and to examine the relationship between these factors and mistreatment. This analysis was based on a sample of 1473 care workers from long-term care facilities and used multiple regression analyses. The results revealed that the nursing care level, work period, resilience, and attitude towards mistreatment among residents and staff were factors significantly associated with the degree of mistreatment. Facility size, an institutional environment that does not limit the behavior of residents, and family and community support for the elderly were among the institutional environment factors that had significant relationships with mistreatment. Staff gender, care-related qualifications, and workload were not associated with mistreatment. These findings suggest that strengthening the staff’s attitude and coping skills to prevent mistreatment, as well as interventions for changes in the institutional environment, are needed to prevent and reduce the prevalence of mistreatment in Japan. In addition, raising staff resilience to stress situations and building a resident-centered facility care environment is an important measure to reduce mistreatment.
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