The Preventive Effect of Dietary Antioxidants against Cervical Cancer versus the Promotive Effect of Tobacco Smoking
Department of Women’s Health, Graduate School of Human Nursing, The University of Shiga Prefecture, Shiga 522-8533, Japan
School of Human Nursing, The University of Shiga Prefecture, Shiga 522-8533, Japan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Healthcare 2019, 7(4), 162; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare7040162
Received: 11 November 2019 / Revised: 10 December 2019 / Accepted: 11 December 2019 / Published: 13 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Women Health)
Uterine cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer in women, and its etiology has been recognized. High-risk human papilloma virus (HR-HPV) infection induces an opportunity for malignant transformation. This paper discusses the current issues based on a review of the literature and compares the impact of the dietary and nutrient intake to the impact of tobacco smoking on cervical cancer development. The important roles of diet/nutrition in cervical cancer are as prophylaxis against HR-HPV infection. Antioxidant vitamins can inhibit the proliferation of cancer cells, stabilize the p53 protein, prevent DNA damage, and reduce immunosuppression. In contrast, tobacco smoking not only causes DNA adducts and strand breaks, but it independently causes an increased viral load in HR-HPV-infected cells. Tobacco smoking induces the heightened expression of E6 and E7 and can inhibit the immune system response to HPV. What happens when two materials, which have opposite effects on cervical cells, are taken in at the same time? The negative effects of tobacco smoking may be stronger than the positive effects of vitamins, vegetables, and fruits on the regression of cervical disease such as cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). A relatively low intake of vitamins, vegetables, and fruits in combination with tobacco smoking was most associated with a high incidence of cervical neoplasia.