Next Article in Journal
Healthcare Received in the Last Months of Life in Portugal: A Systematic Review
Previous Article in Journal
Radiotherapy for the Palliation of Advanced Sarcomas—The Effectiveness of Radiotherapy in Providing Symptomatic Improvement for Advanced Sarcomas in a Single Centre Cohort
Previous Article in Special Issue
Differentiating Psychosomatic, Somatopsychic, Multisystem Illnesses and Medical Uncertainty
Open AccessArticle

Line Immunoblot Assay for Tick-Borne Relapsing Fever and Findings in Patient Sera from Australia, Ukraine and the USA

1
IGeneX Inc., 556 Gibraltar Drive, Milpitas, CA 95035, USA
2
ID-FISH Technology Inc., 556 Gibraltar Drive, Milpitas, CA 95035, USA
3
Stanford Genome Technology Center, 3165 Porter Drive, Palo Alto, CA 94304, USA
4
I. Horbachevsky Ternopil National Medical University, Voli Square, 1, 46002 Ternopil, Ternopil‘s’ka oblast, Ukraine
5
Union Square Medical Associates, 450 Sutter Street, Suite 1504, San Francisco, CA 94108, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Healthcare 2019, 7(4), 121; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare7040121
Received: 11 July 2019 / Revised: 25 September 2019 / Accepted: 16 October 2019 / Published: 21 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lyme Disease and Related Tickborne Infections)
Tick-borne relapsing fever (TBRF) is caused by spirochete bacteria of the genus Borrelia termed relapsing fever Borreliae (RFB). TBRF shares symptoms with Lyme disease (LD) caused by related Lyme disease Borreliae (LDB). TBRF and LD are transmitted by ticks and occur in overlapping localities worldwide. Serological detection of antibodies used for laboratory confirmation of LD is not established for TBRF. A line immunoblot assay using recombinant proteins from different RFB species, termed TBRF IB, was developed and its diagnostic utility investigated. The TBRF IBs were able to differentiate between antibodies to RFB and LDB and had estimated sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of 70.5%, 99.5%, 97.3%, and 93.4%, respectively, based on results with reference sera from patients known to be positive and negative for TBRF. The use of TBRF IBs and analogous immunoblots for LD to test sera of patients from Australia, Ukraine, and the USA with LD symptoms revealed infection with TBRF alone, LD alone, and both TBRF and LD. Diagnosis by clinical criteria alone can, therefore, underestimate the incidence of TBRF. TBRF IBs will be useful for laboratory confirmation of TBRF and understanding its epidemiology worldwide. View Full-Text
Keywords: borreliosis; line immunoblots; Lyme disease; relapsing fever; relapsing fever Borreliae; serological diagnosis borreliosis; line immunoblots; Lyme disease; relapsing fever; relapsing fever Borreliae; serological diagnosis
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Shah, J.S.; Liu, S.; Du Cruz, I.; Poruri, A.; Maynard, R.; Shkilna, M.; Korda, M.; Klishch, I.; Zaporozhan, S.; Shtokailo, K.; Andreychyn, M.; Stricker, R.B.; Ramasamy, R. Line Immunoblot Assay for Tick-Borne Relapsing Fever and Findings in Patient Sera from Australia, Ukraine and the USA. Healthcare 2019, 7, 121.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop