Current Position of the Molecular Therapeutic Targets for Ovarian Clear Cell Carcinoma: A Literature Review
Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu, Shiga 520-2192, Japan
Department of Clinical Laboratory Medicine, Shiga University of Medical Science, Seta Tsukinowa-cho, Otsu, Shiga 520-2192, Japan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Healthcare 2019, 7(3), 94; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare7030094
Received: 6 July 2019 / Revised: 27 July 2019 / Accepted: 29 July 2019 / Published: 30 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis and Treatment for Gynecologic Cancers)
Ovarian clear cell carcinoma (OCCC) shows low sensitivity to conventional chemotherapy and has a poor prognosis, especially in advanced stages. Therefore, the development of innovative therapeutic strategies and precision medicine for the treatment of OCCC are important. Recently, several new molecular targets have been identified for OCCC, which can be broadly divided into four categories: (a) downstream pathways of receptor tyrosine kinases, (b) anti-oxidative stress molecules, (c) AT-rich interactive domain 1A-related chromatin remodeling errors, and (d) anti-programmed death ligand 1/programmed cell death 1 agents. Several inhibitors have been discovered for these targets, and the suppression of OCCC cells has been demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo. However, no single inhibitor has shown a sufficient effectiveness in clinical pilot studies. This review outlines recent progress regarding the molecular biological characteristics of OCCC to identify future directions for the development of precision medicine and combinatorial therapies to treat OCCC.