The contribution of diet to cancer risk has been considered to be higher in advanced countries than in developing countries. In this paper, I review the current issues (a review of the relevant literature), and the effects of the dietary and nutrient intake on three types of gynecologic cancer (cervical, endometrial and ovarian cancers). In cervical cancer, the most important roles of diet/nutrition in relation to cancer are prophylaxis and countermeasures against human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. The main preventive and reductive factors of cervical cancer are antioxidants, such as vitamin A, C, D and E, carotenoids, vegetables and fruits. These antioxidants may have different abilities to intervene in the natural history of diseases associated with HPV infection. For endometrial cancer, the increase in peripheral estrogens as a result of the aromatization of androgens to estrogens in adipose tissue in obese women and insulin resistance are risk factors. Thus, we must mainly take care to avoid the continuous intake of fat energy and sugar. In ovarian cancer, the etiology has not been fully understood. To the best of our knowledge, the long-term consumption of pro-inflammatory foods, including saturated fat, carbohydrates and animal proteins is a risk factor. The intake of acrylamide is also a risk factor for both endometrial and ovarian cancer. Most papers have been epidemiological studies. Thus, further research using in vitro and in vivo approaches is needed to clarify the effects of the dietary and nutrient intake in detail.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited