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Studying the Evolving Knowledge of Adverse Drug Reactions in Order to Facilitate the Rational Use of Medicines in Paediatric Patients

1
Research Section, Uppsala Monitoring Centre, S-751 40 Uppsala, Sweden
2
Academic Division of Child Health, University of Nottingham, Derby DE22 3DT, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Healthcare 2019, 7(2), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare7020055
Received: 28 January 2019 / Revised: 24 March 2019 / Accepted: 28 March 2019 / Published: 2 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rational Use of Medicines in Children)
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PDF [224 KB, uploaded 29 April 2019]

Abstract

Pharmacovigilance, which is the science and activities relating to the detection, assessment, understanding and prevention of adverse effects or any other possible drug-related problems, generates knowledge to facilitate the rational use of medicines. When a medicine is first marketed, there is limited information on adverse drug reactions (ADRs), especially in paediatrics, where medicines are less likely to have been extensively studied. Knowledge in drug safety is built up over time when more (in number, and more heterogeneous) patients are treated than were studied in the randomised controlled trials preceding the marketing of a medicine. Previously not recognised ADRs are often initially described in case reports and case series. Prospective cohort studies are useful in determining the incidence and risk factors of common ADRs. Case series and pharmacovigilance reporting systems have been useful in identifying previously unknown uncommon ADRs and risk factors for specific ADRs. This brief review provides examples that illustrate how various study designs and data sources contribute to the evolving knowledge of ADRs that is essential to help develop guidelines and improve the rational use of medicines. View Full-Text
Keywords: adverse drug reactions; drug toxicity; rational prescribing; pharmacovigilance adverse drug reactions; drug toxicity; rational prescribing; pharmacovigilance
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Star, K.; Choonara, I. Studying the Evolving Knowledge of Adverse Drug Reactions in Order to Facilitate the Rational Use of Medicines in Paediatric Patients. Healthcare 2019, 7, 55.

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