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Impacts of Salinity Intrusion in Community Health: A Review of Experiences on Drinking Water Sodium from Coastal Areas of Bangladesh

1
Department of Environmental Sciences, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka 1342, Bangladesh
2
Graduate School of Environmental Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810, Japan
3
Climate Change Programme, BRAC, Dhaka 1212, Bangladesh
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Healthcare 2019, 7(1), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare7010050
Received: 3 January 2019 / Revised: 17 March 2019 / Accepted: 17 March 2019 / Published: 22 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality and Public Health)
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Abstract

Increasing salt intake has substantial negative impacts on human health and well-being. This article focused on the construction of Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) framework for drinking water sodium (DWS) followed by a review on the published studies regarding salinity intrusion, DWS, and their effects on health perspectives in Bangladesh. Saline water is an important factor for hypertension or high blood pressure in the coastal areas. DWS can also lead women, especially pregnant women, to an increased risk of (pre)eclampsia, hypertension, as well as infant mortality. Several interventions, such as rainwater harvesting, pond sand filter (PSF) system, managed aquifer recharge (MAR), and pilot scale solar-powered desalination plants, such as reverse osmosis (RO), were reviewed on the context of their effectiveness in controlling drinking water sodium. Although rainwater consumption has the positive impact of low or no sodium intake, it still possesses negative impacts from not having vital minerals. A steady increment in sodium concentration through the span of the dry season was observed in MAR. It is, subsequently, important to increase awareness on DWS intake by providing and adopting correct technological interventions and training communities on the maintenance of the adaptive measures. View Full-Text
Keywords: salinity; drinking water sodium; hypertension; managed aquifer recharge; pond sand filter salinity; drinking water sodium; hypertension; managed aquifer recharge; pond sand filter
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Shammi, M.; Rahman, M.M.; Bondad, S.E.; Bodrud-Doza, M. Impacts of Salinity Intrusion in Community Health: A Review of Experiences on Drinking Water Sodium from Coastal Areas of Bangladesh. Healthcare 2019, 7, 50.

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