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The Extremely High Adsorption Capacity of Fluoride by Chicken Bone Char (CBC) in Defluoridation of Drinking Water in Relation to Its Finer Particle Size for Better Human Health
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Repeated Heat Regeneration of Bone Char for Sustainable Use in Fluoride Removal from Drinking Water

1
Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Toyama Prefectural University, Toyama 939-0398, Japan
2
National Institute of Technology, Toyama College, Toyama 939-8630, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Healthcare 2018, 6(4), 143; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare6040143
Received: 17 October 2018 / Revised: 10 November 2018 / Accepted: 5 December 2018 / Published: 8 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality and Public Health)
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Abstract

The effectiveness of regenerated chicken bone char (CBC) in fluoride removal was investigated in the present study. Heat treatment was studied as the regeneration method. Results revealed that the CBC regenerated at 673 K yielded the highest fluoride adsorption capacity, hence, 673 K was the best regenerating temperature. The study continued up to five regeneration cycles at the best regenerating temperature; 673 K. The CBC accounted to 16.1 mg F/g CBC as the total adsorption capacity after five regeneration cycles. The recovery percentage of CBC reduced from 79% at the first regeneration to 4% after five regeneration cycles. The hydroxyapatite structure of CBC was not changed during the fluoride adsorption by five regeneration cycles. The ion exchange incorporated with the chemical precipitation occurred during the fluoride adsorption. The repeated regeneration of CBC is possible and it could be used as a low cost defluoridation technique to minimize the wastage of bone char. View Full-Text
Keywords: adsorption capacity; defluoridation; repeated heat regeneration; hydroxyapatite; ion exchange; chemical precipitation adsorption capacity; defluoridation; repeated heat regeneration; hydroxyapatite; ion exchange; chemical precipitation
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Herath, H.M.A.S.; Kawakami, T.; Tafu, M. Repeated Heat Regeneration of Bone Char for Sustainable Use in Fluoride Removal from Drinking Water. Healthcare 2018, 6, 143.

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