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Healthcare 2018, 6(3), 105; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare6030105

Allostatic Load Biomarker Associations with Depressive Symptoms Vary among US Black and White Women and Men

Department of Quantitative Health Sciences, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01655, USA
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Received: 9 July 2018 / Revised: 20 August 2018 / Accepted: 25 August 2018 / Published: 28 August 2018
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Abstract

The prevalence and severity of depression differ in women and men and across racial groups. Psychosocial factors such as chronic stress have been proposed as contributors, but causes of this variation are not fully understood. Allostatic load, a measure of the physiological burden of chronic stress, is known to be associated with depression. Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–2010, we examined the associations of nine allostatic load biomarkers with depression among US black and white adults aged 18–64 years (n = 6431). Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Patient Health Questionaire-9; logistic models estimated adjusted odds of depression based on allostatic load biomarkers. High-risk levels of c-reactive protein were significantly associated with increased odds of depression among white women (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.7, 95% CI: 1.1–2.5) and men (aOR = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.1–2.8) but not black women (aOR = 0.8, 95% CI: 0.6–1.1) or men (aOR = 0.9, 95% CI: 0.5–1.5). Among black men, hypertension (aOR = 1.7, 95% CI: 1.1–2.7) and adverse serum albumin levels (aOR = 1.7, 95% CI: 1.0–2.9) predicted depression, while high total cholesterol was associated with depression among black women (aOR = 1.6, 95% CI: 1.0–2.7). The associations between allostatic load biomarkers and depression varies with gendered race, suggesting that, despite consistent symptomatology, underlying disease mechanisms may differ between these groups. View Full-Text
Keywords: chronic stress; allostatic load; depression; gender; race; intersectionality chronic stress; allostatic load; depression; gender; race; intersectionality
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Bey, G.S.; Jesdale, B.M.; Ulbricht, C.M.; Mick, E.O.; Person, S.D. Allostatic Load Biomarker Associations with Depressive Symptoms Vary among US Black and White Women and Men. Healthcare 2018, 6, 105.

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