Next Article in Journal
Helping Health Services to Meet the Needs of Young People with Chronic Conditions: Towards a Developmental Model for Transition
Previous Article in Journal
Variability in Strength, Pain, and Disability Changes in Response to an Isolated Lumbar Extension Resistance Training Intervention in Participants with Chronic Low Back Pain
Article Menu
Issue 4 (December) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Healthcare 2017, 5(4), 76;

Exploring Knowledge and Attitudes about Vitamin D among Adults in Saudi Arabia: A Qualitative Study

Public Health, School of Medicine and Menzies Health Institute Queensland, Griffith University, Gold Coast campus, Southport QLD 4222, Australia
Department of Medical Research, China Medical University Hospital, China Medical University, Taichung City 404, Taiwan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 August 2017 / Revised: 12 October 2017 / Accepted: 13 October 2017 / Published: 16 October 2017
Full-Text   |   PDF [232 KB, uploaded 17 October 2017]


Abstract: Vitamin D deficiency is widespread in Saudi Arabia. The aim of this study was to explore participants’ knowledge about vitamin D and attitudes toward sun exposure. The study also aimed to explore the social and cultural factors that might potentially contribute to vitamin D deficiency in Saudi Arabia. Face-to-face interviews were carried out in the cities of Jeddah and Makkah between May and October 2015. The interview questions were semi-structured, and the data was analyzed using thematic analysis. Study participants showed a reasonable level of knowledge in different areas about vitamin D, including the effect of vitamin D deficiency on bone health and exposure to sunlight as the main source of vitamin D. Participants were also knowledgeable about vitamin D supplements as another source of this vitamin. Nevertheless, there was a shortage of knowledge in relation to dietary sources of vitamin D. In respect to attitudes toward sun exposure, some participants had positive attitudes toward sunlight and were willing to expose themselves to sunlight, but it was restricted to the early morning or late afternoon to avoid the heat. These participants who liked exposure to sunlight were largely exposing only their faces and hands to sunlight. Other participants had negative attitudes toward sun exposure and were avoiding sunlight. Moreover, the study participants identified several barriers to sun exposure, including hot climate, living in high-rise buildings, limited public areas allowing outdoor activities, lifestyle issues such as physical inactivity, and some religious concerns such as wearing the hijab. The study results also demonstrate that females were more enthusiastic about taking actions to improve their vitamin D status in comparison with males. Recommendations for health education interventions that increase awareness about vitamin D sources, especially food sources, are made. Also, educational interventions should focus on increasing awareness about the sufficient time of the day and duration for sun exposure to improve vitamin D status and the importance of the intake of vitamin D supplements as an affordable source to improve vitamin D status. Increasing males’ awareness of the benefits of vitamin D is important to encourage them to adopt behaviors to improve vitamin D. View Full-Text
Keywords: vitamin D deficiency; knowledge; attitudes; qualitative; sun exposure; vitamin D supplements; Saudi Arabia vitamin D deficiency; knowledge; attitudes; qualitative; sun exposure; vitamin D supplements; Saudi Arabia
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material


Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Aljefree, N.; Lee, P.; Ahmed, F. Exploring Knowledge and Attitudes about Vitamin D among Adults in Saudi Arabia: A Qualitative Study. Healthcare 2017, 5, 76.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Healthcare EISSN 2227-9032 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top