Next Article in Journal
Analyzing Overlaid Foreign Objects in Chest X-rays—Clinical Significance and Artificial Intelligence Tools
Next Article in Special Issue
Can Acupuncture Improve the Flexibility of Hamstring Muscles? A Randomized, Blinded, and Controlled Pilot Study
Previous Article in Journal
Association between Suicidal Behaviors in Adolescence and Negative Emotions, the Level of Stress, Stress Coping Strategies and the Quality of Sleep
Previous Article in Special Issue
A Narrative Review of Current Striae Treatments
Font Type:
Arial Georgia Verdana
Font Size:
Aa Aa Aa
Line Spacing:
Column Width:
Brief Report

Can Qigong Be a Tool to Assist Students in Handling COVID-19’s Resulting Academic Stress?

Mário Gonçalves
Leonel Duarte
Jorge Magalhães Rodrigues
Henry Johannes Greten
1,3 and
Jorge Machado
ICBAS-UP—School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Porto, 4050-313 Porto, Portugal
CBSin—Center of BioSciences in Integrative Health, 4000-105 Porto, Portugal
HSCM—Heidelberg School of Chinese Medicine, 69126 Heidelberg, Germany
IPTC—Research Department in Complementary Medicine of the Portuguese Institute of Taiji and Qigong, 4470-765 Maia, Portugal
LABIOMEP—Porto Biomechanics Laboratory, University of Porto, 4200-450 Porto, Portugal
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Healthcare 2023, 11(3), 307;
Submission received: 7 November 2022 / Revised: 10 January 2023 / Accepted: 14 January 2023 / Published: 19 January 2023


The recent COVID-19 pandemic has increased students’ stress as they may feel under increased pressure to have a good performance and compensate for the disruption to their education. Improving attention levels and learning capacity may assist in ameliorating academic performance. Qigong is a traditional Chinese medicine technique that appears to have positive effects on the management of mental health and may provide tools for coping with stressful situations. This paper explores data obtained while conducting a previous study and includes an excess of data from a total of 44 participants who were previously divided into an experimental Qigong group and a sham Qigong control group. The improvements in specific auditory processing and reaction times may indicate benefits in attention and learning capacity. These improvements were more pronounced in the experimental Qigong group compared to the sham Qigong group. Qigong may be able to assist in improving students’ academic performance and can be easily integrated into physical education classes. It could also assist students to cope with the increased academic pressure resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic context.

1. Introduction

In the last decades, there has been increasing concern about the mental health of children and young people [1,2,3,4]. It is usually considered that high academic pressure and the need to succeed in school can have a negative impact on the psychological well-being of students [5,6,7,8] and can even lead to the development of school-related burnout [8,9,10]. Considering the already damaging effects of that phenomenon, the recent COVID-19 pandemic might have exacerbated it, as its impact on schools and educational institutions was severe [11], affecting no less than 1.5 billion learners during COVID-19’s first wave [12]. This impact resulted in a significant disruption of the usual educational processes in terms of decreased engagement and class participation as well as decreased opportunities for social interaction [13]. As well, teachers experienced an additional workload and stress due to increased barriers to engaging with students, parents, and colleagues [13], ultimately resulting in worse outcomes for students [14].
It is crucial to understand that academic pressure and the resulting stress are associated with depression, anxiety, and substance use disorders [15], perpetuating a cycle of lower school performance and achievement [16,17]. According to Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary [18], attention can be defined as “the act or state of applying the mind to something” or “a condition of readiness for such attention involving especially a selective narrowing or focusing of consciousness and receptivity”. Improved dimensions of conditioned reaction times seem to be related to improved attention as well as to a better learning capacity [19] and, thus, specifically in children and adolescents, school performance [20,21].
Considering all this, effective tools that assist in handling school pressures, especially in examination phases, must be considered and implemented in schools. Techniques that assist directly or indirectly in the improvement of reaction time and, therefore, attention and learning capacity must be carefully considered and studied.
Qigong, as a traditional Chinese medicine technique, incorporates breathing techniques with static or dynamic exercises and meditative processes to attain specific therapeutic results [22]. It may be considered an applied psychophysiological feedback technique that may be guided by the student himself, allowing him to learn how to control the body’s functions and processes, achieving homeostasis [22]. As well, the Heidelberg model of traditional Chinese medicine considers Qigong as a traditional vegetative biofeedback technique with many health-related applications [23,24].
This technique seems to have positive effects on the management of mental health and may provide tools to overcome stressful contexts [25,26,27,28,29]. As well, some cognitive and behavioural improvements seem to be produced by the practice of therapeutic Qigong [24,30,31].
Especially for students, some studies have shown that Qigong can be a useful tool to assist in handling stress, raising levels of motivation, modulating behaviour, and improving focus [22,32,33,34,35]. It is suggested that it can also be applied as a mindfulness-based cognitive behavioural therapy in schools [33]. This brief report aims to explore the data collected in a previous study and analyse the specific measures through which Qigong can promote academic performance in young students and help to offset the negative effects of COVID-19 in the school context.

2. Methodology

This paper examines data obtained while conducting a previous study [36]. The sample consisted of 66 adolescents attending the eighth grade. However, the data examined in this paper focuses on the experimental and placebo groups with a total of 44 participants.
The experimental group (54.5% ♀, 45.5% ♂, age range 12 to 14 years old, mean 12.95 years old) performed the Heidelberg model’s White Ball Qigong exercise as described by Greten [23], with a 5-min duration at the end of gym classes, twice a week for four weeks. The placebo group (50% ♀, 50% ♂, age range 12 to 14 years old, mean 13 years old) performed sham Qigong by adopting the White Ball exercise posture while watching television. Both groups were instructed to do the exercises daily at home.
The MP36 system (from Biopac Systems, Inc., Goleta, CA, USA) was used for data retrieval. The participants had to listen to three sequences of 10 sounds each and press a button upon hearing the stimulus.
The first and second sequences measured reaction time related to attention (random stimuli), while the third sequence measured reaction time specifically related to learning capacity (rhythmic stimuli). Data were collected at the beginning of the study (T0), after 2 weeks (T1), and at the beginning of the school assessment period after 4 weeks (T2).

3. Results and Discussion

The results according to Figure 1 suggest that participants tended to demonstrate higher values of reaction time scores in T1 compared to T0. For both stimuli, the true Qigong group performed better, with smaller increases in reaction time. In T2, the tendency to increase reaction time remained in the sham Qigong group, while the experiemental Qigong group showed a decrease in reaction time for both stimuli.
The change can also be observed in Figure 2, which shows the development of each group according to the type of stimuli. Overall, the sham Qigong group showed increased reaction times, while the experimental Qigong group showed a tendency towards stabilisation and even some improvement in reaction times.
These data suggest that experimental Qigong may be able to stabilise or decrease reaction times. Improvements in these measures may be associated with improvements in attention (random stimuli) and learning capacity (rhythmic stimuli). In both the experimental and sham groups, the response to the random stimulus took longer. This may be due to the greater involvement of the brain (auditory and decision time) and spinal (final peripheral execution) procedures, while rhythmic stimulation is more related to spinal reflexes.
The timeframe in which this data was retrieved may also suggest that experimental Qigong can counteract anxiety’s destabilising effect, namely on neuromuscular reactivity.
For the same reason, as the school’s assessment period approached, the sham Qigong participants could not achieve such results, and their performance in the tests was progressively lower.
The previously published study [36] already showed positive effects on the attention levels of this sample by using the d2 test of attention assessment. In addition, another study [37], also using White Ball Qigong but with an older population, a showed positive effects on auditory attention mechanisms, as verified by the increasing speed of reaction times in the experimental group compared with a control group. The same outcome measures were applied (MP36 System by Biopac Systems), and the study also concluded that specific White Ball Qigong education (conditioning) may be important to maximise the beneficial effects of the technique. As well, meta-analyses on a different population indicate that these techniques may be beneficial in the improvement of global cognitive function, memory, learning, mental speed, attention, visuospatial perception, language, ideas, abstraction, and figural creation [30,31]. The effects can potentially be related to the regulation of the plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), as suggested by the study of Lin, Cui, Yang, Yang, Feng, Wahner-Roedler, Zhou, Salinas, Mallory, Do, Bublitz, Chon, Tang, Bauer, and Xu [31]. BDNF is an essential molecule that is involved in plastic changes related to learning and memory [38]. As well, the pivotal role of BDNF in the potentiation of neuromuscular transmission [39] also supports our previously mentioned hypothesis regarding neuromuscular reactivity improvement.
According to our results and the exploration of this data, we propose that academic performance can be benefited by Qigong via the improvement of reaction times related to attention and learning capacity.
Overall, several mechanisms may be involved in the development of Qigong’s health-related benefits and the specific improvements in some cognitive functions [40,41,42,43]. These benefits may vary according to technique and population, and for that, systematic investigation in the field should be developed using standardised methods and well-developed studies. Despite no side effects being reported in our sample, the protocol study of Guo et al. [44] suggests that Qigong may have the risk of developing a wide range of side effects. However, more scientific research is needed to properly assess the real risks and understand their dimensions. For these reasons, we suggest that future studies should be conducted with larger samples, with well-designed allocation procedures, and explore control group possibilities through the design of extended comparisons with multiple interventions and sham interventions.

4. Conclusions

The results of this data analysis suggest that Qigong can be a useful tool for improving student performance and can be easily integrated into physical education classes. As such, it may also prove to be a useful tool in dealing with the increased pressures and demands that COVID-19 has caused in the school environment.

Author Contributions

Conceptualization, M.G., J.M.R. and J.M.; methodology, M.G., H.J.G. and L.D.; validation, J.M., H.J.G. and M.G.; formal analysis, L.D. and J.M.R.; investigation, M.G., L.D. and J.M.R.; resources, L.D.; data curation, L.D. and J.M.R.; writing—original draft preparation, J.M.R. and J.M.; writing—review and editing, J.M.R. and J.M.; visualization, J.M.R. and J.M.; supervision, J.M. and H.J.G.; project administration, M.G. and L.D. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.


This research received no external funding.

Institutional Review Board Statement

The original research from which the data analysed in this study were derived was conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki and approved by the ICBAS-UP Ethics Committee.

Informed Consent Statement

Informed consent was obtained from all subjects involved in the study.

Data Availability Statement

The data presented in this study are available on request from the corresponding author. The data are not publicly available due to privacy restrictions.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare there are no conflict of interest. This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors to carry out this project.


  1. Strong, T.; Sesma-Vazquez, M. Discourses on children’s mental health: A critical review. In The Palgrave Handbook of Child Mental Health; Palgrave Macmillan: London, UK, 2015; pp. 99–116. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  2. Meherali, S.; Punjani, N.; Louie-Poon, S.; Abdul Rahim, K.; Das, J.K.; Salam, R.A.; Lassi, Z.S. Mental Health of Children and Adolescents Amidst COVID-19 and Past Pandemics: A Rapid Systematic Review. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 3432. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. Golberstein, E.; Gonzales, G.; Meara, E. How do economic downturns affect the mental health of children? Evidence from the National Health Interview Survey. Health Econ. 2019, 28, 955–970. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. Loades, M.E.; Chatburn, E.; Higson-Sweeney, N.; Reynolds, S.; Shafran, R.; Brigden, A.; Linney, C.; McManus, M.N.; Borwick, C.; Crawley, E. Rapid Systematic Review: The Impact of Social Isolation and Loneliness on the Mental Health of Children and Adolescents in the Context of COVID-19. J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry 2020, 59, 1218–1239.e3. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. Stentiford, L.; Koutsouris, G.; Allan, A. Girls, mental health and academic achievement: A qualitative systematic review. Educ. Rev. 2021, 1–31. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  6. Deb, S.; Strodl, E.; Sun, H. Academic stress, parental pressure, anxiety and mental health among Indian high school students. Int. J. Psychol. Behav. Sci. 2015, 5, 26–34. [Google Scholar]
  7. Eriksen, I.M. Class, parenting and academic stress in Norway: Middle-class youth on parental pressure and mental health. Discourse Stud. Cult. Politics Educ. 2020, 42, 602–614. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  8. Qin, L.; Chen, S.; Luo, B.; Chen, Y. The Effect of Learning Burnout on Sleep Quality in Primary School Students: The Mediating Role of Mental Health. Healthcare 2022, 10, 2076. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  9. Meylan, N.; Meylan, J.; Rodriguez, M.; Bonvin, P.; Tardif, E. What Types of Educational Practices Impact School Burnout Levels in Adolescents? Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 1152. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  10. Farina, E.; Ornaghi, V.; Pepe, A.; Fiorilli, C.; Grazzani, I. High School Student Burnout: Is Empathy a Protective or Risk Factor? Front. Psychol. 2020, 11. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. Delardas, O.; Kechagias, K.S.; Pontikos, P.N.; Giannos, P. Socio-Economic Impacts and Challenges of the Coronavirus Pandemic (COVID-19): An Updated Review. Sustainability 2022, 14, 9699. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  12. UNESCO. Education: From Disruption to Recovery. Available online: (accessed on 30 December 2022).
  13. Reimers, F.M. Learning from a pandemic. The impact of COVID-19 on education around the world. In Primary and Secondary Education during COVID-19; Springer: Cham, Switzerland, 2022; pp. 1–37. [Google Scholar]
  14. Robinson, L.E.; Valido, A.; Drescher, A.; Woolweaver, A.B.; Espelage, D.L.; LoMurray, S.; Long, A.C.J.; Wright, A.A.; Dailey, M.M. Teachers, Stress, and the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Qualitative Analysis. Sch. Ment. Health 2022, 1–12. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. Pascoe, M.C.; Hetrick, S.E.; Parker, A.G. The impact of stress on students in secondary school and higher education. Int. J. Adolesc. Youth 2019, 25, 104–112. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  16. Liu, Y.; Lu, Z. The Chinese high school student’s stress in the school and academic achievement. Educ. Psychol. 2011, 31, 27–35. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  17. Liu, Y. The longitudinal relationship between Chinese high school students’ academic stress and academic motivation. Learn. Individ. Differ. 2015, 38, 123–126. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  18. Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary. Attention. In Dictionary n.d. Available online: (accessed on 25 October 2022).
  19. Hedges, J.H.; Adolph, K.E.; Amso, D.; Bavelier, D.; Fiez, J.A.; Krubitzer, L.; McAuley, J.D.; Newcombe, N.S.; Fitzpatrick, S.M.; Ghajar, J. Play, attention, and learning: How do play and timing shape the development of attention and influence classroom learning? Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 2013, 1292, 1–20. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  20. Cardoso-Leite, P.; Bavelier, D. Video game play, attention, and learning: How to shape the development of attention and influence learning? Curr. Opin. Neurol. 2014, 27, 185–191. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  21. Rabiner, D.L.; Carrig, M.M.; Dodge, K.A. Attention Problems and Academic Achievement: Do Persistent and Earlier-Emerging Problems Have More Adverse Long-Term Effects? J. Atten. Disord. 2016, 20, 946–957. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  22. Rodrigues, J.M.; Matos, L.C.; Francisco, N.; Dias, A.; Azevedo, J.; Machado, J. Assessment of Qigong Effects on Anxiety of High-school Students: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Adv. Mind-Body Med. 2021, 35, 10–19. [Google Scholar]
  23. Greten, H.J. Handbook of Functional Therapeutic Qigong—Exercises According to Diagnosis; Heidelberg School of Chinese Medicine: Heidelberg, Germany, 2009. [Google Scholar]
  24. Rodrigues, J.M.; Lopes, L.T.; Gonçalves, M.; Machado, J.P. Perceived Health Benefits of Taijiquan and Qigong. Altern. Ther. Health Med. 2022. [Google Scholar]
  25. Rodrigues, J.M. Distanciamento Social e Saúde Mental: Perceção de um Programa à Distância de Técnicas Tradicionais de Biofeedback Vegetativo; Faculty of Psychology and Education Sciences of the University of Porto: Porto, Portugal, 2022. [Google Scholar]
  26. Rodrigues, J.M.; Santos, C.; Ventura, C.; Machado, J. Mental Health Benefits of a Traditional Vegetative Biofeedback Therapy Online Program during the COVID-19 Lockdown: A Controlled Trial. Healthcare 2022, 10, 1843. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  27. Sawyer, L.M.; Brown, L.M.; Ms, S.Y.L.; McFadden, D.; Bs, M.M.B.; Ferrier, I.; Sullivan, D.H. Rapid conversion of Tai Chi classes from face-to-face to virtual during the COVID-19 pandemic: A quality improvement project. Nurs. Forum 2022, 57, 491–496. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  28. Oh, B.; Van Der Saag, D.; Morgia, M.; Carroll, S.; Boyle, F.; Back, M.; Lamoury, G. An Innovative Tai Chi and Qigong Telehealth Service in Supportive Cancer Care During the COVID-19 Pandemic and Beyond. Am. J. Lifestyle Med. 2020. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. Li, F.; Harmer, P.; Fitzgerald, K.; Winters-Stone, K. A cognitively enhanced online Tai Ji Quan training intervention for community-dwelling older adults with mild cognitive impairment: A feasibility trial. BMC Geriatr. 2022, 22, 76. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. Yang, J.; Zhang, L.; Tang, Q.; Wang, F.; Li, Y.; Peng, H.; Wang, S. Tai Chi is Effective in Delaying Cognitive Decline in Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment: Evidence from a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Evid.-Based Complement. Altern. Med. 2020, 2020, 3620534. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. Lin, R.; Cui, S.; Yang, J.; Yang, H.; Feng, Z.; Wahner-Roedler, D.L.; Zhou, X.; Salinas, M.; Mallory, M.J.; Do, A.; et al. Effects of Tai Chi on Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. BioMed Res. Int. 2021, 2021, 5530149. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  32. Jouper, J.; Hassmén, P. Intrinsically Motivated Qigong Exercisers are More Concentrated and Less Stressful. Am. J. Chin. Med. 2008, 36, 1051–1060. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  33. Rodrigues, J.M.; Lopes, L.; Gonçalves, M.; Machado, J.P. Taijiquan and qigong as a mindfulness cognitive-behavioural based therapy on the treatment of cothymia in school-age children—A preliminary study. J. Bodyw. Mov. Ther. 2020, 26, 329–338. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  34. Rodrigues, J.M.S.M.; Mestre, M.I.C.P.; Matos, L.C.; Machado, J.P. Effects of taijiquan and qigong practice over behavioural disorders in school-age children: A pilot study. J. Bodyw. Mov. Ther. 2018, 23, 11–15. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  35. Sousa, C.M.; Goncalves, M.; Machado, J.; Efferth, T.; Greten, T.; Froeschen, P.; Greten, H.J. Effects of Qigong on Performance-Related Anxiety and Physiological Stress Functions in Transverse Flute Music Schoolchildren: A Feasibility Study. Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao 2012, 10, 858–865. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  36. Duarte, L.; Gonçalves, M.; Mendes, P.; Matos, L.C.; Greten, H.J.; Machado, J. Can Qigong improve attention in adolescents? A prospective randomised controlled trial. J. Bodyw. Mov. Ther. 2020, 24, 175–181. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  37. Lopes, L.J. The Acute Effect of “White Ball” Qigong in Perceptual Auditory Attention—A Randomized, Controlled Study Done with Biopac Reaction Time Measurements; ICBAS: Porto, Portugal, 2015. [Google Scholar]
  38. Miranda, M.; Morici, J.F.; Zanoni, M.B.; Bekinschtein, P. Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor: A Key Molecule for Memory in the Healthy and the Pathological Brain. Front. Cell. Neurosci. 2019, 13, 363. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  39. Yokota, T. BDNF as a novel therapeutic candidate for Kennedy’s disease. J. Physiol. 2020, 598, 2543–2544. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  40. Tsang, H.W.; Fung, K.M. A Review on Neurobiological and Psychological Mechanisms Underlying the Anti-depressive Effect of Qigong Exercise. J. Health Psychol. 2008, 13, 857–863. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  41. Chen, X.; Cui, J.; Li, R.; Norton, R.; Park, J.; Kong, J.; Yeung, A. Dao Yin (aka Qigong): Origin, development, potential mechanisms, and clinical applications. Evid.-Based Complement. Altern. Med. 2019, 2019, 3705120. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  42. Ng, B.H.; Tsang, H.W. Psychophysiological outcomes of health qigong for chronic conditions: A systematic review. Psychophysiology 2009, 46, 257–269. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  43. Jerger, K.K.; Lundegard, L.; Piepmeier, A.; Faurot, K.; Ruffino, A.; Jerger, M.A.; Belger, A. Neural Mechanisms of Qigong Sensory Training Massage for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Feasibility Study. Glob. Adv. Health Med. 2018, 7. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  44. Guo, Y.; Xu, M.M.; Huang, Y.; Ji, M.; Wei, Z.; Zhang, J.; Hu, Q.; Yan, J.; Chen, Y.; Lyu, J.; et al. Safety of Qigong: Protocol for an overview of systematic reviews. Medicine 2018, 97, e13042. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
Figure 1. Stimuli mean results at each assessment time for both groups.
Figure 1. Stimuli mean results at each assessment time for both groups.
Healthcare 11 00307 g001
Figure 2. Mean percentage change in reaction time for both groups based on the type of stimuli.
Figure 2. Mean percentage change in reaction time for both groups based on the type of stimuli.
Healthcare 11 00307 g002
Disclaimer/Publisher’s Note: The statements, opinions and data contained in all publications are solely those of the individual author(s) and contributor(s) and not of MDPI and/or the editor(s). MDPI and/or the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to people or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content.

Share and Cite

MDPI and ACS Style

Gonçalves, M.; Duarte, L.; Rodrigues, J.M.; Greten, H.J.; Machado, J. Can Qigong Be a Tool to Assist Students in Handling COVID-19’s Resulting Academic Stress? Healthcare 2023, 11, 307.

AMA Style

Gonçalves M, Duarte L, Rodrigues JM, Greten HJ, Machado J. Can Qigong Be a Tool to Assist Students in Handling COVID-19’s Resulting Academic Stress? Healthcare. 2023; 11(3):307.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gonçalves, Mário, Leonel Duarte, Jorge Magalhães Rodrigues, Henry Johannes Greten, and Jorge Machado. 2023. "Can Qigong Be a Tool to Assist Students in Handling COVID-19’s Resulting Academic Stress?" Healthcare 11, no. 3: 307.

Note that from the first issue of 2016, this journal uses article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Metrics

Back to TopTop