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Article

Pulmonary Function and Psychological Burden Three Months after COVID-19: Proposal of a Comprehensive Multidimensional Assessment Protocol

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Chronic Respiratory Failure Care Pathway, Department of Medical Specialties, Azienda Usl Toscana Nordovest, 56048 Volterra, Italy
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Fondazione Volterra Ricerche Onlus, 56048 Volterra, Italy
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Department of Surgical, Medical and Molecular Pathology, Critical and Care Medicine, University of Pisa, 56126 Pisa, Italy
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Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Section of Psychiatry, University of Pisa, 56126 Pisa, Italy
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Medical Special Unit for Continuity Care (USCA), Azienda Usl Toscana Nordovest, 56048 Volterra, Italy
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Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa, 56126 Pisa, Italy
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Internal Medicine Unit, Felice Lotti Hospital, Azienda Usl Toscana Nordovest, 56025 Pontedera, Italy
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Pulmonary and Occupational Medicine Outpatient Service Volterra (PI), Azienda Usl Toscana Nordovest, 56048 Volterra, Italy
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Ilaria Baiardini
Healthcare 2022, 10(4), 612; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10040612
Received: 14 February 2022 / Revised: 15 March 2022 / Accepted: 23 March 2022 / Published: 25 March 2022
Persisting limitations in respiratory function and gas exchange, cognitive impairment, and mental health deterioration have been observed weeks and months after acute SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19). The present study aims at assessing the impairment at three-months in patients who successfully recovered from acute COVID-19. We collected data from May to July 2020. Patients underwent a multidimensional extensive assessment including pulmonary function test, psychological tests, thoracic echo scan, and functional exercise capacity. A total of 21 patients (M:13; Age 57.05 ± 11.02) completed the global assessment. A considerable proportion of patients showed symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (28.6%), moderate depressive symptoms (9.5%), and clinical insomnia (9.5%); 14.3% of patients exhibited moderate anxiety. A total of eleven patients (52.4%) showed impaired respiratory gas exchange capacity (P-DLCO, DLCO ≤ 79% pred). Compared to patients with normal gas exchange, the P-DLCO subgroup perceived a significant worsening in quality of life (QoL) after COVID-19 (p = 0.024), higher fatigue (p = 0.005), and higher impact of lung disease (p = 0.013). In P-DLCO subgroup, higher echo score was positively associated with hospitalization length of stay (p = 0.047), depressive symptoms (p = 0.042), fatigue (p = 0.035), impairment in mental health (p = 0.035), and impact of lung disease in health status (p = 0.020). Pulmonary function and echo scan lung changes were associated to worsened QoL, fatigue, and psychological distress symptoms. View Full-Text
Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; long COVID; respiratory function; psychological distress; lung diffusion COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; long COVID; respiratory function; psychological distress; lung diffusion
MDPI and ACS Style

Vagheggini, G.; Marzetti, F.; Miniati, M.; Bernardeschi, L.; Miccoli, M.; Boni Brivio, G.; Meini, S.; Panait, E.; Cini, E.; Gemignani, A. Pulmonary Function and Psychological Burden Three Months after COVID-19: Proposal of a Comprehensive Multidimensional Assessment Protocol. Healthcare 2022, 10, 612. https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10040612

AMA Style

Vagheggini G, Marzetti F, Miniati M, Bernardeschi L, Miccoli M, Boni Brivio G, Meini S, Panait E, Cini E, Gemignani A. Pulmonary Function and Psychological Burden Three Months after COVID-19: Proposal of a Comprehensive Multidimensional Assessment Protocol. Healthcare. 2022; 10(4):612. https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10040612

Chicago/Turabian Style

Vagheggini, Guido, Francesca Marzetti, Mario Miniati, Lorenzo Bernardeschi, Mario Miccoli, Giulia Boni Brivio, Simone Meini, Eugenia Panait, Elena Cini, and Angelo Gemignani. 2022. "Pulmonary Function and Psychological Burden Three Months after COVID-19: Proposal of a Comprehensive Multidimensional Assessment Protocol" Healthcare 10, no. 4: 612. https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10040612

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