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Review

Understanding the Relationship between Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) and Criminal Justice: A Systematic Review

1
Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Foggia, 71122 Foggia, Italy
2
Department of Medical, Surgical and Advanced Technologies “G.F. Ingrassia”, University of Catania, 95121 Catania, Italy
3
Department of History, Society and Studies on Humanity, University of Salento, 73100 Lecce, Italy
4
Department of Law, Criminology, Magna Graecia University of Catanzaro, 88100 Catanzaro, Italy
5
Department of Biomedical and Dental Sciences and Morphofunctional Imaging, University of Messina, 98121 Messina, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Edward J. Pavlik
Healthcare 2022, 10(1), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10010084
Received: 9 December 2021 / Revised: 29 December 2021 / Accepted: 29 December 2021 / Published: 2 January 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health in Prison)
Prenatal alcohol exposure is considered one of the main causes of preventable birth disorders; however, it represents the main form of developmental delay in the world. Among the so-called secondary disabilities related to fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD), there is a close connection with criminal behavior. This systematic review aims to provide up-to-date information about the relationship between FASD subjects and criminal justice analyzing different aspects. In light of the results of this review, a further goal is to provide several suggestions in order to reduce the public cost impact of FASD. A systematic review of the literature was conducted according to the PRISMA guidelines, producing 20 articles that met the inclusion criteria. Based on the results published in the selected studies, fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is a leading cause of preventable birth disorders and developmental disabilities in newborns. Moreover, these subjects seem to be more inclined to criminal acts compared to others. In conclusion, it should be pointed out that FASD entails high public health costs, both regarding the support measures provided to the affected individual and to their family, as well as the cost and social impact of any criminal offenses committed. View Full-Text
Keywords: fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD); fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS); criminal justice; brain impairment fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD); fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS); criminal justice; brain impairment
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sessa, F.; Salerno, M.; Esposito, M.; Di Nunno, N.; Li Rosi, G.; Roccuzzo, S.; Pomara, C. Understanding the Relationship between Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) and Criminal Justice: A Systematic Review. Healthcare 2022, 10, 84. https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10010084

AMA Style

Sessa F, Salerno M, Esposito M, Di Nunno N, Li Rosi G, Roccuzzo S, Pomara C. Understanding the Relationship between Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) and Criminal Justice: A Systematic Review. Healthcare. 2022; 10(1):84. https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10010084

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sessa, Francesco, Monica Salerno, Massimiliano Esposito, Nunzio Di Nunno, Giuseppe Li Rosi, Salvatore Roccuzzo, and Cristoforo Pomara. 2022. "Understanding the Relationship between Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) and Criminal Justice: A Systematic Review" Healthcare 10, no. 1: 84. https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10010084

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