# A Robust and Reversible Watermarking Algorithm for a Relational Database Based on Continuous Columns in Histogram

^{1}

^{2}

^{*}

## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Related Work

#### 2.1. HGW Reversible Database Watermarking Method

#### 2.2. NSHGW Reversible Database Watermarking Method

## 3. The Proposed Method

#### 3.1. Preprocessing and Grouping

#### 3.2. Construction of Histogram

#### 3.3. Watermark Embedding

#### 3.4. Watermark Extraction and Data Recovery

## 4. Experimental Results and Analysis

#### 4.1. Comparative Analysis of Data Distortion Effect

#### 4.2. Watermark Robustness Analysis

## 5. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

- Gursale, N.; Mohanpurkar, A. A robust, Distortion minimization fingerprinting technique for relational database. Int. J. Recent Innov. Trends Comput. Commun.
**2014**, 2, 737–1741. [Google Scholar] - Shehab, M.; Bertino, E.; Ghafoor, A. Watermarking relational databases using optimization-based techniques. IEEE Trans. Knowl. Data Eng.
**2008**, 20, 116–129. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Khanduja, V.; Chakraverty, S.; Verma, O. Enabling information recovery with ownership using robust multiple watermarks. J. Inf. Secur. Appl.
**2016**, 29, 80–92. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Gupta, G.; Pieprzyk, J. Database relation watermarking resilient against secondary watermarking attacks. In Information Systems Security: 5th International Conference, Proceedings of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Volume 5905, Kolkata, India, 14–18 December 2009; Springer: Berlin/Heidelberg, Germany; pp. 222–236.
- Bhattacharya, S.; Cortesi, A. A distortion free watermark framework for relational databases. In Proceedings of the ICSOFT 2009—4th International Conference on Software and Data Technologies, Sofia, Bulgaria, 26–29 July 2009; Volume 2, pp. 229–234. [Google Scholar]
- Iftikhar, S.; Kamran, M.; Anwar, Z. RRW-a robust and reversible watermarking technique for relational data. IEEE Trans. Knowl. Data Eng.
**2015**, 27, 1132–1145. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Mo, Q.; Yao, H.; Cao, F. Reversible data hiding in encrypted image based on block classification permutation. Comput. Mater. Contin.
**2019**, 59, 119–133. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version] - Wang, B.W.; Kong, W.W.; Li, W. A dual-chaining watermark scheme for data integrity protection in Internet of Things. Comput. Mater. Contin.
**2019**, 58, 679–695. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version] - Liu, J.; Li, J.B.; Cheng, J.R. A novel robust watermarking algorithm for encrypted medical image based on DTCWT-DCT and chaotic map. Comput. Mater. Contin.
**2019**, 61, 889–910. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Agrawal, R.; Kiernan, J. Watermarking relational databases. In Proceedings of the 28th VLDB Conference, Hong Kong, China, 20–23 August 2002; pp. 155–166. [Google Scholar]
- Sion, R. Proving ownership over categorical data. In Proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Data Engineering, Boston, MA, USA, 2 April 2004; pp. 584–596. [Google Scholar]
- Sion, R.; Atallah, M.; Prabhakar, S. Rights protection for categorical data. IEEE Trans. Knowl. Data Eng.
**2005**, 17, 912–926. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version] - Liu, S.Y.; Wang, S.H.; Dengetal, R. A block oriented fingerprinting scheme in relational database. In Information Security and Cryptology—ICISC 2004, Proceedings of the 7th International Conference, Seoul, Korea, 2–3 December 2004; Springer: Berlin/Heidelberg, Germany, 2004; Volume 3506. [Google Scholar]
- Chang, J.; Wu, H. Reversible fragile database watermarking technology using difference expansion based on SVR prediction. In Proceedings of the International Symposium on Computer, Consumer and Control, Taiwan, China, 4–6 June 2012; pp. 690–693. [Google Scholar]
- Zhang, Y.; Yang, B.; Niu, X.M. Reversible watermarking for relational database authentication. J. Comput.
**2006**, 17, 59–65. [Google Scholar] - Jawad, K.; Khan, A. Genetic algorithm and difference expansion based reversible watermarking for relational databases. J. Syst. Softw.
**2013**, 86, 2742–2753. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Imamoglu, M.B.; Ulutas, M.; Ulutas, G. A new reversible database watermarking approach with firefly optimization algorithm. Math. Probl. Eng.
**2017**, 2017, 1–14. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Mahmoud, E.; Farfoura, H.; Wang, X. A novel blind reversible method for watermarking relational databases. J. Chin. Inst. Eng.
**2013**, 36, 87–97. [Google Scholar] - Hu, D.H.; Zhao, D.; Zheng, S.L. A new robust approach for reversible database watermarking with distortion control. IEEE Trans. Knowl. Data Eng.
**2018**, 31, 1024–1037. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Li, Y.; Wang, J.W.; Ge, S.K. A reversible database watermarking method with low distortion. Math. Biosci. Eng.
**2019**, 16, 4053–4068. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed] - Li, Y.; Wang, J.W.; Luo, X.Y. A reversible database watermarking method non-redundancy shifting-based histogram gaps. Int. J. Distrib. Sens. Netw.
**2020**, 16, 155014772092176. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Franco-Contreras, J.; Coatrieux, G.; Cuppens, F.; Cuppens-Boulahia, N.; Roux, C. Robust Lossless Watermarking of Relational Databases Based on Circular Histogram Modulation. IEEE Trans. Inf. Forensics Secur.
**2017**, 9, 397–410. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

**Figure 1.**Schematic diagram of the relational database based on continuous columns in histogram (RCW) method.

**Figure 3.**The comparison of data distortion rates caused by 48-bit watermarks. (

**a**) The Comparison of distortion rates for RCW, Histogram-Gaps based Watermarking (HGW), and Non-Redundancy Shifting Based Histogram-Gaps (NSHGW); (

**b**) The Comparison of distortion rates for RCW and Genetic Algorithm and Histogram Shifting Watermarking (GAHSW).

**Figure 4.**Deletion attacks bit error rate (BER) comparison for RCW, NSHGW, HGW, Genetic Algorithm and Histogram Shifting Watermarking (GAHSW), prediction error extended watermarking (PEEW), and GADEW algorithms.

Publisher’s Note: MDPI stays neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. |

© 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

## Share and Cite

**MDPI and ACS Style**

Li, Y.; Wang, J.; Jia, H. A Robust and Reversible Watermarking Algorithm for a Relational Database Based on Continuous Columns in Histogram. *Mathematics* **2020**, *8*, 1994.
https://doi.org/10.3390/math8111994

**AMA Style**

Li Y, Wang J, Jia H. A Robust and Reversible Watermarking Algorithm for a Relational Database Based on Continuous Columns in Histogram. *Mathematics*. 2020; 8(11):1994.
https://doi.org/10.3390/math8111994

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Li, Yan, Junwei Wang, and Hongyong Jia. 2020. "A Robust and Reversible Watermarking Algorithm for a Relational Database Based on Continuous Columns in Histogram" *Mathematics* 8, no. 11: 1994.
https://doi.org/10.3390/math8111994