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Article

A Robust and Reversible Watermarking Algorithm for a Relational Database Based on Continuous Columns in Histogram

by 1,2,*, 1 and 2
1
PLA Strategic Support Force Information Engineering University, Zhengzhou 450001, China
2
Institute of Software, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Mathematics 2020, 8(11), 1994; https://doi.org/10.3390/math8111994
Received: 30 July 2020 / Revised: 1 November 2020 / Accepted: 5 November 2020 / Published: 8 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Computing Methods in Steganography and Multimedia Security)
Due to the discreteness of integer data, there are a large number of gaps and continuous columns in the histogram based on integer data. Aiming at the characteristics, this paper presents a robust and reversible watermarking algorithm for a relational database based on continuous columns in histogram. Firstly, it groups the database tuples according to the watermark length and the grouping key. Secondly, it calculates the prediction errors and uses the absolute values of the prediction errors to construct the histogram. Thirdly, it traverses the histogram to find all the continuous columns and in turn, computes the sum of the height of each continuous column and selects the group of continuous columns that has the largest sum as the positions to embed the watermarks. FCTD (Forest cover type data set) is utilized for experimental verification. A large amount of experimental data shows that the method is effective and robust. Not only does the data distortion caused by shifting histogram columns not exist, but the robustness of the watermark is also greatly improved. View Full-Text
Keywords: reversible database; robust watermarking algorithm; continuous columns; low data distortion; high robustness reversible database; robust watermarking algorithm; continuous columns; low data distortion; high robustness
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MDPI and ACS Style

Li, Y.; Wang, J.; Jia, H. A Robust and Reversible Watermarking Algorithm for a Relational Database Based on Continuous Columns in Histogram. Mathematics 2020, 8, 1994. https://doi.org/10.3390/math8111994

AMA Style

Li Y, Wang J, Jia H. A Robust and Reversible Watermarking Algorithm for a Relational Database Based on Continuous Columns in Histogram. Mathematics. 2020; 8(11):1994. https://doi.org/10.3390/math8111994

Chicago/Turabian Style

Li, Yan, Junwei Wang, and Hongyong Jia. 2020. "A Robust and Reversible Watermarking Algorithm for a Relational Database Based on Continuous Columns in Histogram" Mathematics 8, no. 11: 1994. https://doi.org/10.3390/math8111994

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