The aim of the present paper is twofold. First, to give the main ideas behind quantum computing and quantum information, a field based on quantum-mechanical phenomena. Therefore, a short review is devoted to (i) quantum bits
or qubits (and more generally qudits
), the analogues of the usual bits 0 and 1 of the classical information theory, and to (ii) two characteristics of quantum mechanics, namely, linearity
, which manifests itself through the superposition of qubits and the action of unitary operators on qubits, and entanglement
of certain multi-qubit states, a resource that is specific to quantum mechanics. A, second, focus is on some mathematical problems related to the so-called mutually unbiased bases
used in quantum computing and quantum information processing. In this direction, the construction of mutually unbiased bases is presented via two distinct approaches: one based on the group SU(2) and the other on Galois fields and Galois rings.
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