Next Article in Journal
Network Analysis of a Membrane-Enriched Brain Proteome across Stages of Alzheimer’s Disease
Next Article in Special Issue
Towards Understanding Non-Infectious Growth-Rate Retardation in Growing Pigs
Previous Article in Journal / Special Issue
Dowling, P.; et al. Characterization of Contractile Proteins from Skeletal Muscle Using Gel-Based Top-Down Proteomics. Proteomes 2019, 7, 25
Open AccessFeature PaperReview

What is Normalization? The Strategies Employed in Top-Down and Bottom-Up Proteome Analysis Workflows

1
Bowel Cancer & Biomarker Lab, Northern Clinical School, Faculty of Medicine and Health, The University of Sydney Lvl 8, Kolling Institute. Royal North Shore Hospital, St. Leonards, NSW 2065, Australia
2
School of Life Sciences and Proteomics Core Facility, Faculty of Science, The University of Technology Sydney, Ultimo 2007, Australia
3
Respiratory Cellular and Molecular Biology, Woolcock Institute of Medical Research, The University of Sydney, Glebe 2037, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Proteomes 2019, 7(3), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/proteomes7030029
Received: 8 July 2019 / Revised: 19 August 2019 / Accepted: 20 August 2019 / Published: 22 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Top-down Proteomics: In Memory of Dr. Alfred Yergey)
The accurate quantification of changes in the abundance of proteins is one of the main applications of proteomics. The maintenance of accuracy can be affected by bias and error that can occur at many points in the experimental process, and normalization strategies are crucial to attempt to overcome this bias and return the sample to its regular biological condition, or normal state. Much work has been published on performing normalization on data post-acquisition with many algorithms and statistical processes available. However, there are many other sources of bias that can occur during experimental design and sample handling that are currently unaddressed. This article aims to cast light on the potential sources of bias and where normalization could be applied to return the sample to its normal state. Throughout we suggest solutions where possible but, in some cases, solutions are not available. Thus, we see this article as a starting point for discussion of the definition of and the issues surrounding the concept of normalization as it applies to the proteomic analysis of biological samples. Specifically, we discuss a wide range of different normalization techniques that can occur at each stage of the sample preparation and analysis process. View Full-Text
Keywords: normalization; top down proteomics; 2D-PAGE; LC-MS/MS normalization; top down proteomics; 2D-PAGE; LC-MS/MS
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

O’Rourke, M.B.; Town, S.E.L.; Dalla, P.V.; Bicknell, F.; Koh Belic, N.; Violi, J.P.; Steele, J.R.; Padula, M.P. What is Normalization? The Strategies Employed in Top-Down and Bottom-Up Proteome Analysis Workflows. Proteomes 2019, 7, 29.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop