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Open AccessArticle

Variety and Dynamics of Proteoforms in the Human Proteome: Aspects of Markers for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

1
Institute of Biomedical Chemistry, Pogodinskaya 10, Moscow 119121, Russia
2
Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, National Research Center “Kurchatov Institute”, Gatchina, Leningrad Region 188300, Russia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Proteomes 2017, 5(4), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/proteomes5040033
Received: 11 October 2017 / Revised: 31 October 2017 / Accepted: 6 November 2017 / Published: 23 November 2017
We have previously developed an approach, where two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) was used, followed by sectional analysis of the whole gel using high-resolution nano-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (ESI LC-MS/MS). In this study, we applied this approach on the panoramic analysis of proteins and their proteoforms from normal (liver) and cancer (HepG2) cells. This allowed us to detect, in a single proteome, about 20,000 proteoforms coded by more than 4000 genes. A set of 3D-graphs showing distribution of these proteoforms in 2DE maps (profiles) was generated. A comparative analysis of these profiles between normal and cancer cells showed high variability and dynamics of many proteins. Among these proteins, there are some well-known features like alpha-fetoprotein (FETA) or glypican-3 (GPC3) and potential hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) markers. More detailed information about their proteoforms could be used for generation of panels of more specific biomarkers. View Full-Text
Keywords: protein species/proteoform; dynamics; abundance; 2DE; proteome; ESI LC-MS/MS; biomarker protein species/proteoform; dynamics; abundance; 2DE; proteome; ESI LC-MS/MS; biomarker
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Naryzhny, S.; Zgoda, V.; Kopylov, A.; Petrenko, E.; Kleist, O.; Archakov, А. Variety and Dynamics of Proteoforms in the Human Proteome: Aspects of Markers for Hepatocellular Carcinoma. Proteomes 2017, 5, 33.

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