2. Women in Academic Leadership: What Do We Know?
2.1. Leadership, Management, and Leaderism
2.2. What Are the Issues?
2.3. New Directions
2.4. What is Missing?
The first time I became chair, I was the only option. At the time I was a contractually limited teaching appointment, a CLTA, and as such would not normally become a chair of my department, but as there were so few people who had tenure or an interest in being chair, I was somewhat eligible and the actual choice of the associate dean who thought that I would be the right person for the job. I was chair just for one year, and then was done and went back to my appointment.
When I was learning to be a chair, maybe the first time, the first year, I had questions every day. I couldn’t answer any student questions. “How do I do a mobility exchange?” “I don’t know”. “How do I replace a course for the transfer credit?” “I have no idea”. “I’m having trouble in this course, is there any way I could do something else, or what do I do about this instructor?” “Well, I don’t know, let’s talk about it”. And I would have to go to my predecessor at that time on a weekly basis, really, and say “what do I do in this situation?” … until I really understood it myself, and I would say that I had to get to a deep forensic level, a forensic relationship with my own program, so that I basically know every single thing about it, at this point.
There was a whole web of women administrators who did a lot of the work in this place. The dean’s assistant was very experienced and she would answer all kinds of questions, because I did not have anything on paper that told me how to do things.(Sandra)
No one really explains it to you, but over time, you start to understand so-and-so works with curriculum. So-and-so works with finance. So-and-so does scheduling for courses. You begin to know over time who to talk to, because there’s a lot of that investigation [necessary].(Dorie)
It helped when I started meeting with other chairs. I actually set it up that we should meet together and talk and we met informally for breakfast or whatever. And everybody had problems and issues and things like that.(Sandra)
In my own tenure application, I tried to identify the types of work I do as chair, separate from service, which has been interesting, because there’s a bit of a myth that chairing is sort of service even though it’s posted as an actual appointment. So I feel that, I mean, I shouldn’t have to define my own job, but I have. I’ve tried to identify the types of groups of people I work with, the types of work I do with each group, the type of objectives I set, the goals I set, and the things I’m responsible for, because it hasn’t been really clear to me. So if it’s not clear to me, how is it clear to anyone else?
I’d like to say that you’re supposed to know everything as chair. And the other side of people not knowing what a chair does is that you do everything … To be honest, that’s not bad. You are the front line of the program, in my mind.
It’s really important to me to make people feel valued and to give them a voice and take them seriously. I actually think everyone has a voice and this is everyone from our tenured faculty to our class assistants. I would equally sit down with any of them and I do—any of them, who have a concern, a question, or want to talk. I think that it’s really important to value them and show support on a personal level too.
- One thing I feel we haven’t necessarily touched on that I feel is prevalent is this feeling of personal responsibility for the department and that is something I struggle with, because I actually feel, and I know you did too, because I observed you being chair and how you felt very personally, like it’s all resting on your shoulders.
- I did…I felt very responsible like that, that’s right. But I also felt that I learned over the years that you can love an institution, but it doesn’t love you back.
- I told you that. I told you those exact words when you were chair. I said “the job doesn’t love you”. That’s what I said to you. I tried to get that through to you.
We were both talking about the negative effect it would have on our own practices, and going in really with our eyes open, knowing that most people who become chairs notice a sharp decline in time for practice. This is creative practice. And that we had really never met anyone who had been able to avoid that kind of impact.
The chairs I know … really put their programs first, and I’ve seen people really struggle with the challenges of supporting their programs and being just so passionate about trying to support all their people in the community, the faculty, and the students, and so on, but not themselves, maybe to the detriment of themselves … It isn’t easy to talk about your personal life as a chair, because who do you talk to?(Dorie)
I wonder if we have a gender issue here, when we’re describing this intense commitment, because I’m thinking of some of the men who were chairs that I knew who just didn’t seem to operate that way. They didn’t seem so bothered, and things kind of seemed to not get them agitated in the same way.(Sandra)
Both in my institutions and elsewhere I have seen that women in these upper positions get heavily criticized … It almost seems to go along with the job … and it fits the theory of the glass cliff, that women are hired for jobs that are really difficult to do … It would also fit the idea that they are not given much leeway, that they are criticized for things that maybe men would be allowed to do, and it also fits the idea that there is a tension between the idea of management or leadership and of being female. If the image of a leader is masculine, how do you perform leadership if you are not male or masculine? You [Dorie] may not feel that as strongly in the environment you work in.
It’s true, I mean, there’s something that should be said for context. I work in an art and design institution and so it’s possible that there is more flexibility in terms of identity, in terms of outward presentation or I would say there’s a history of creativity in, I guess, in just the very nature of its founding and its personal expression. So it’s possible that that isn’t quite the same.
I’ve actually moved from a physical archive to an almost entirely digital archive, because I simply cannot bear all the paper. If you were to print out every decision that’s been made, every policy, every outline, every history of every student or every faculty member, you would be drowning in paper. So, I organize it all digitally which is a job in itself because it’s this entire kind of personal archive.(Dorie)
I’m actually in the trenches, teaching the students, as well as working with them weekly on various concerns, as well as hiring and assisting and mentoring faculty and working with technicians. I have many different people I work with all the time, but I would say, I have learned through this immense workload and I have decided at some point in my chairship that there are certain things that I need to push upwards and I shouldn’t do them myself … I have had to find out what my boundaries are, and my boundaries tend to be issues with colleagues.
I’m definitely a leader. I think my role is to lead in a lot of complex ways. It’s to look out for the department’s future. It’s to consider the needs of all the community members in the department and to try to create a really cooperative supportive environment for them. I’ve thought a lot about this, what the role is, over time. I thought a lot about how I speak to them, correspond with them, how I bring them together and how I communicate and how I create smaller teams among them to do different kinds of work. I think teachers are leaders in their own classrooms, but when you’re a chair, you’re a leader in lots of actual functional ways, because you are leading the development of, say, curriculum, of the space … So, what do we need in our studios that helps our students learn? How do we stay relevant? How do we think about the future? How to incorporate, say, new technology into our structure, both our spaces and our curriculum? So I’m leading, because I’m kind of visioning all that stuff, but at the same time I’m kind of leading on a day to day basis, like making sure our schedule works, like making sure the students aren’t overburdened with workload. I see all of that as leadership … a leader chairs meetings, a leader looks ahead, a leader creates a tone for their program, and I do all those things.
5. Discussion and Conclusions
Academic work is … boundless and potentially infinite, and therefore, it is always a matter of determining and managing one’s workload as well as simply doing one’s work. This puts academic work squarely in a terrain where individual psychology meets collective norms. (p. 93) (italics in original).
Conflicts of Interest
- Acker, S. A Foot in the Revolving Door? Women Academics in Lower-Middle Management. High. Educ. Res. Dev. 2014, 33, 73–85. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Deem, R. The Twenty-First-Century University: Dilemmas of Leadership and Organizational Futures. In The Global University: Past, Present and Future Perspectives; Nelson, A.R., Wei, L.P., Eds.; Palgrave Macmillan: New York, NY, USA, 2012; pp. 105–129. [Google Scholar]
- Morley, L. The Rules of the Game: Women and the Leaderist Turn in Higher Education. Gend. Educ. 2013, 25, 116–131. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- O’Reilly, D.; Reed, M. ‘Leaderism’ and the Discourse of Leadership in the Reformation of UK Public Services. In Leadership in the Public Sector: Promises and Pitfalls; Teelken, C., Ferlie, E., Dent, M., Eds.; Routledge: London, UK, 2012; pp. 21–43. [Google Scholar]
- Fox-Kirk, W. Viewing Authentic Leadership through a Bourdieusian Lens: Understanding Gender and Leadership as Social Action. Adv. Dev. Hum. Resour. 2017, 19, 439–453. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Lumby, J. Distributed Leadership: The Uses and Abuses of Power. Educ. Manag. Adm. Leadersh. 2013, 41, 581–597. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Eagly, A.H. Female Leadership Advantage and Disadvantage: Resolving the Contradictions. Psychol. Women Q. 2007, 31, 1–12. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Mertkan, S. In Search of Leadership: What Happened to Management? Educ. Manag. Adm. Leadersh. 2014, 42, 226–242. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- David, M.; Woodward, D. (Eds.) Negotiating the Glass Ceiling: Careers of Senior Women in the Academic World; Falmer Press: London, UK, 1998. [Google Scholar]
- Marshall, C. Feminist Critical Policy Analysis Vol. 2; Routledge: London, UK, 1997. [Google Scholar]
- Bagilhole, B.; White, K. (Eds.) Gender, Power and Management: A Cross-Cultural Analysis of Higher Education; Palgrave Macmillan: Basingstoke, UK, 2011. [Google Scholar]
- Blackmore, J.; Sachs, J. Performing and Reforming Leaders: Gender, Educational Restructuring, and Organizational Change; State University of New York Press: Albany, NY, USA, 2007. [Google Scholar]
- Fitzgerald, T. Women Leaders in Higher Education: Shattering the Myths; Routledge: London, UK, 2013. [Google Scholar]
- Fitzgerald, T.; Wilkinson, J. Travelling towards a Mirage? Gender, Leadership and Higher Education; Post Pressed: Mt Gravatt, Australian, 2010. [Google Scholar]
- O’Connor, P. Management and Gender in Higher Education; Manchester University Press: Manchester, UK, 2014. [Google Scholar]
- Schnackenberg, H.L.; Simard, D.A. Challenges Facing Female Department Chairs in Contemporary Higher Education: Emerging Research and Opportunities; IGI Global: Hershey, PA, USA, 2017. [Google Scholar]
- Burkinshaw, P.; White, K. Fixing the Women or Fixing Universities: Women in HE Leadership. Adm. Sci. 2017, 7, 30. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Bird, S.R. Unsettling Universities’ Incongruous, Gendered Bureaucratic Structures: A Case-Study Approach. Gend. Work Organ. 2011, 18, 202–230. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Benschop, Y.; Brouns, M. Crumbling Ivory Towers: Academic Organizing and Its Gender Effects. Gend. Work Organ. 2003, 10, 194–212. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Grummell, B.; Devine, D.; Lynch, K. The Care-Less Manager: Gender, Care and New Managerialism in Higher Education. Gend. Educ. 2009, 21, 191–208. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Deem, R. Gender, Organizational Cultures and the Practices of Manager–Academics in UK Universities. Gend. Work Organ. 2003, 10, 239–259. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Barcan, R. Academic Life and Labour in the New University: Hope and Other Choices; Ashgate: Farnham, UK, 2013. [Google Scholar]
- Moodie, G. Fish or Fowl? Collegial Processes in Managerialist Institutions. Aust. Univ. Rev. 2002, 45, 18–22. [Google Scholar]
- Morley, L.; Crossouard, B. Gender in the Neoliberalised Global Academy: The Affective Economy of Women and Leadership in South Asia. Br. J. Sociol. Educ. 2016, 37, 149–168. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Pini, B. The Third Sex: Women Leaders in Australian Agriculture. Gend. Work Organ. 2005, 12, 73–88. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Priola, V. Being Female Doing Gender. Narratives of Women in Education Management. Gend. Educ. 2007, 19, 21–40. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Acker, S. Chairing and Caring: Gendered Dimensions of Leadership in Academe. Gend. Educ. 2012, 24, 411–428. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Burkinshaw, P. Higher Education, Leadership and Women Vice Chancellors: Fitting in to Communities of Practice of Masculinities; Palgrave Macmillan: Basingstoke, UK, 2015. [Google Scholar]
- Ryan, M.K.; Haslam, S.A. The Glass Cliff: Exploring the Dynamics Surrounding the Appointment of Women to Precarious Leadership Positions. Acad. Manag. Rev. 2007, 32, 549–572. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Acker, S. Gendered Games in Academic Leadership. Int. Stud. Sociol. Educ. 2010, 20, 129–152. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Peterson, H. Is Managing Academics “Women’s Work”? Exploring the Glass Cliff in Higher Education Management. Educ. Manag. Adm. Leadersh. 2016, 44, 112–127. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- David, M.E. Prima Donna Inter Pares? Women in Academic Management. In Teachers, Gender and Careers; Acker, S., Ed.; Falmer Press: London, UK, 1989; pp. 203–215. [Google Scholar]
- Drake, P. Becoming Known through Email: A Case of Woman, Leadership, and an Awfully Familiar Strange Land. Gend. Educ. 2015, 27, 148–163. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Jansen, J. Black Dean: Race, Reconciliation, and the Emotions of Deanship. Harvard Educ. Rev. 2005, 75, 306–326. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Yang, J. Celebrated Indigenous law school dean resigns claiming systemic racism. The Toronto Star. 11 April 2018. Available online: https://www.thestar.com/news/canada/2018/04/11/celebrated-indigenous-law-school-dean-resigns-claiming-systemic-racism.html (accessed on 18 April 2018).
- Read, B.; Kehm, B.M. Women as Leaders of Higher Education Institutions: A British-German Comparison. Stud. High. Educ. 2016, 41, 815–827. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Griffiths, V. Women Leaders in Higher Education: Organizational Cultures and Personal Resilience. Multidiscip. J. Gend. Stud. 2012, 1, 70–94. [Google Scholar]
- Wroblewski, A. Feminist University Management: Precondition or Indicator for Success? A Case Study from Austria. In Gendered Success in Higher Education: Global Perspectives; White, K., O’Connor, P., Eds.; Palgrave Macmillan: London, UK, 2017; pp. 49–70. [Google Scholar]
- Morley, L. Troubling Intra-Actions: Gender, Neo-Liberalism and Research in the Global Academy. J. Educ. Policy 2016, 31, 28–45. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Haake, U. Doing Leadership in Higher Education: The Gendering Process of Leader Identity Development. Tert. Educ. Manag. 2009, 15, 291–304. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Spanò, E. Femina Academica: Women ‘Confessing’ Leadership in Higher Education. Gend. Educ. 2017. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Ahad, L.R.; Gunter, H. Women in Leader Roles within Higher Education in Bangladesh. Manag. Educ. 2017, 31, 135–140. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Aiston, S.J.; Yang, Z. “Absent Data, Absent Women”: Gender and Higher Education Leadership. Policy Futures Educ. 2017, 15, 262–274. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Kuzhabekova, A.; Almukhambetova, A. Female Academic Leadership in the Post-Soviet Context. Eur. Educ. Res. J. 2017, 16, 183–199. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Mabokela, R.O.; Mlambo, Y.A. “The Older Women Are Men:” Navigating the Academic Terrain, Perspectives from Ghana. High. Educ. 2015, 69, 759–778. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Acker, S. Gender, Leadership and Change in Faculties of Education in Three Countries. In Leadership, Gender and Culture; Reynolds, C., Collard, J., Eds.; Open University Press: Maidenhead, UK, 2005; pp. 103–117. [Google Scholar]
- Wyn, J.; Acker, S.; Richards, E. Making a Difference: Women in Management in Australian and Canadian Faculties of Education. Gend. Educ. 2000, 12, 435–447. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Blackmore, J.; Sánchez-Moreno, M.; Sawers, N. (Eds.). Globalized Re/Gendering of the Academy and Leadership; Routledge: London, UK, 2017. [Google Scholar]
- Machado-Taylor, M.D.L.; White, K. Women in Academic Leadership. In Gender Transformation in the Academy; Demos, V., Berheide, C.W., Segal, M.T., Eds.; Emerald: Bingley, UK, 2014; pp. 375–393. [Google Scholar]
- O’Connor, P.; Goransson, A. Constructing or Rejecting the Notion of the Other in University Management: The Cases of Ireland and Sweden. Educ. Manag. Adm. Leadersh. 2015, 43, 323–340. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Teelken, C.; Deem, R. All Are Equal, but Some Are More Equal than Others: Managerialism and Gender Equality in Higher Education in Comparative Perspective. Comp. Educ. 2013, 49, 520–535. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Ashcraft, K.L.; Mumby, D.K. Reworking Gender: A Feminist Communicology of Organization; Sage: Thousand Oaks, CA, USA, 2004. [Google Scholar]
- Devine, D.; Grummell, B.; Lynch, K. Crafting the Elastic Self? Gender and Identities in Senior Appointments in Irish Education: Gender and Identities in Irish Education. Gend. Work Organ. 2011, 18, 631–649. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Søndergaard, D.M. Making Sense of Gender, Age, Power and Disciplinary Position: Intersecting Discourses in the Academy. Feminism Psychol. 2005, 15, 189–208. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Höpfl, H. A Question of Membership. In Revealing and Concealing Gender; Lewis, P., Simpson, R., Eds.; Palgrave Macmillan: Basingstoke, UK, 2010; pp. 39–53. [Google Scholar]
- Thomas, R.; Davies, A. Gender and New Public Management: Reconstituting Academic Subjectivities. Gend. Work Organ. 2002, 9, 372–397. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Leathwood, C. Women Academic Researchers: Still Interlopers in the UK Academy? In The Changing Role of Women in Higher Education; Eggins, H., Ed.; Springer: Cham, Switzerland, 2017; pp. 227–242. [Google Scholar]
- Thompson, B.M. Succumbing, Surviving, Succeeding? Women Managers in Academia. Gend. Manag. Int. J. 2015, 30, 397–413. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- O’Connor, P. Good Jobs—But Places for Women? Gend. Educ. 2015, 27, 304–319. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Enders, J. The University and the Public and Private Good. In Leadership in the Public Sector: Promises and Pitfalls; Teelken, C., Ferlie, E., Dent, M., Eds.; Routledge: London, UK, 2012; pp. 195–213. [Google Scholar]
- Acker, S.; Webber, M.; Smyth, E. Continuity or Change? Gender, Family, and Academic Work for Junior Faculty in Ontario Universities. NASPA J. Women High. Educ. 2016, 9, 1–20. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Morris, T.L.; Laipple, J.S. How Prepared Are Academic Administrators? Leadership and Job Satisfaction within US Research Universities. J. High. Educ. Policy Manag. 2015, 37, 241–251. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Ylijoki, O.-H. Boundary-Work between Work and Life in the High-Speed University. Stud. High. Educ. 2013, 38, 242–255. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Acker, S.; Webber, M. Uneasy Academic Subjectivities in the Contemporary Ontario University. In Identity Work in the Contemporary University; Smith, J., Rattray, J., Peseta, T., Loads, D., Eds.; Sense: Rotterdam, The Netherlands, 2016; pp. 61–75. [Google Scholar]
- Drake, P. “The Cut and Thrust of Industrial Relations”—Bullying by Another Name? Gend. Manag. 2018, 33, 2–13. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Ahmed, S. Affective Economies. Soc. Text 2004, 22, 117–139. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Bourdieu, P.; Wacquant, L.J.D. An Invitation to Reflexive Sociology; University of Chicago Press: Chicago, IL, USA, 1992. [Google Scholar]
- Morley, L. Lost Leaders: Women in the Global Academy. High. Educ. Res. Dev. 2014, 33, 114–128. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Smith, C.P.; Freyd, J.J. Dangerous Safe Havens: Institutional Betrayal Exacerbates Sexual Trauma. J. Trauma. Stress 2013, 26, 119–124. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Brownlee, J. Academia, Inc.: How Corporatization Is Transforming Canadian Universities; Fernwood: Halifax, NS, Canada, 2015. [Google Scholar]
- Muzzin, L. Equity, Ethics, Academic Freedom and the Employment of Contingent Academics. Acad. Matters 2009, 5, 19–22. [Google Scholar]
- Navarro, T. But Some of Us Are Broke: Race, Gender, and the Neoliberalization of the Academy. Am. Anthropol. 2017, 119, 506–517. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Vicary, A.; Jones, K. The Implications of Contractual Terms of Employment for Women and Leadership: An Autoethnographic Study in UK Higher Education. Adm. Sci. 2017, 7, 20. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Muzzin, L.J.; Acker, S. Minoritized Faculty in Canada’s Universities and Colleges: Gender, Power, and Academic Work. In Working Women in Canada: An Intersectional Approach; Nichols, L., Tyyskä, V., Eds.; Canadian Scholars/Women’s Press: Toronto, ON, Canada. (in press)
- Bannerji, H.; Carty, L.; Dehli, K.; Heald, S.; McKenna, K. Unsettling Relations: The University as a Site of Feminist Struggles; Women’s Press: Toronto, ON, Canada, 1991. [Google Scholar]
- Chávez, A.F. Women and Minorities Encouraged to Apply: Challenges and Opportunities of Critical Cultural Feminist Leadership in Academe. In Tedious Journeys: Autoethnography by Women of Color in Academe; Robinson, C.C., Clardy, P., Eds.; Peter Lang: New York, NY, USA, 2010; pp. 177–199. [Google Scholar]
- Chun, E.B.; Evans, A. Diverse Administrators in Peril: The New Indentured Class in Higher Education; Paradigm: Boulder, CO, USA, 2012. [Google Scholar]
- Moses, T.Y. Guiding Women of Color to Academic Leadership. In Women in Academic Leadership; Dean, D., Bracken, S., Allen, J., Eds.; Stylus: Sterling, VA, USA, 2009; pp. 181–207. [Google Scholar]
- Henry, A. ‘We Especially Welcome Applications from Members of Visible Minority Groups’: Reflections on Race, Gender and Life at Three Universities. Race Ethn. Educ. 2015, 18, 589–610. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- David, M.E. Feminism, Gender and Universities: Politics, Passion and Pedagogies; Ashgate: Farnham, UK, 2014. [Google Scholar]
- Bagilhole, B.; White, K. (Eds.) Generation and Gender in Academia; Palgrave Macmillan: London, UK, 2013. [Google Scholar]
- Archer, L. The New Neoliberal Subjects? Young/er Academics’ Constructions of Professional Identity. J. Educ. Policy 2008, 23, 265–285. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Read, B.; Leathwood, C. Tomorrow’s a Mystery: Constructions of the Future and ‘Un/Becoming’ amongst ‘Early’ and ‘Late’ Career Academics. Int. Stud. Sociol. Educ. 2018, 5, 1–9. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Santiago, R.; Carvalho, T.; Cardoso, S. Portuguese Academics’ Perceptions of Higher Education Institutions’ Governance and Management: A Generational Perspective. Stud. High. Educ. 2015, 40, 1471–1484. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Martimianakis, M.A.; Muzzin, L. Discourses of Interdisciplinarity and the Shifting Topography of Academic Work: Generational Perspectives on Facilitating and Resisting Neoliberalism. Stud. High. Educ. 2015, 40, 1454–1470. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Baker, M. Academic Careers and the Gender Gap; UBC Press: Vancouver, BC, Canada, 2012. [Google Scholar]
- Whittaker, E. (Ed.). Solitudes of the Workplace: Women in Universities; Mc-Gill-Queen’s University Press: Montreal, QC, Canada; Kingston, ON, Canada, 2015. [Google Scholar]
- Boyko, L.; Jones, G.A. The Roles and Responsibilities of Middle Management (Chairs and Deans) in Canadian Universities. In The Changing Dynamics of Higher Education Middle Management; Meek, V.L., Goedegebuure, L., Santiago, R., Carvalho, T., Eds.; Springer: Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 2010; pp. 83–102. [Google Scholar]
- Doucet, A. Dad and Baby in the First Year: Gendered Responsibilities and Embodiment. Ann. Am. Acad. Political Soc. Sci. 2009, 624, 78–98. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Metcalfe, A.S.; González, L.P. Underrepresentation of Women in the Academic Profession: A Comparative Analysis of the North American Region. NASPA J. Women High. Educ. 2013, 6, 1–21. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Bentley, P.J.; Coates, H.; Dobson, I.R.; Goedegebuure, L.; Meek, V.L. (Eds.) Job Satisfaction around the Academic World; Springer: Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 2013. [Google Scholar]
- Acker, S.; Webber, M. Discipline and Publish: The Tenure Review Process in Ontario Universities. In Assembling and Governing the Higher Education Institution; Schultz, L., Viczko, Eds.; Palgrave Macmillan: London, UK, 2016; pp. 233–255. [Google Scholar]
- Expert Panel on Women in University Research. Strengthening Canada’s Research Capacity: The Gender Dimension; Council of Canadian Academies: Ottawa, ON, Canada, 2012. [Google Scholar]
- Cafley, J. Why Have So Many Canadian University Presidencies Failed? In University Affairs; 15 September 2015. Available online: https://www.universityaffairs.ca/opinion/in-my-opinion/why-have-so-many-canadian-university-presidencies-failed/ (accessed on 26 February 2018).
- Lavigne, E. Paths to the Canadian Deanship: A Study of Canadian Universities’ Appointment Announcements. Presented at the Society for Research into Higher Education Annual Meeting, Newport, UK, 7–9 December 2016. [Google Scholar]
- Kloot, L. Women and Leadership in Universities: A Case Study of Women Academic Managers. Int. J. Public Sect. Manag. 2004, 17, 470–485. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Floyd, A. ‘Turning Points’: The Personal and Professional Circumstances That Lead Academics to Become Middle Managers. Educ. Manag. Adm. Leadersh. 2012, 40, 272–284. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Hannum, K.M.; Muhly, S.M.; Shockley-Zalabak, P.S.; White, J.S. Women Leaders within Higher Education in the United States: Supports, Barriers, and Experiences of Being a Senior Leader. Adv. Women Leadersh. 2015, 35, 65–75. [Google Scholar]
- Thorne, S. Prologue: A View from the Pinnacle: Conversations with Martha Piper. In Solitudes of the Workplace: Women in Universities; Whittaker, E., Ed.; McGill-Queen’s University Press: Montreal, MB, Canada; Kingston, ON, Canada, 2016; pp. 13–22. [Google Scholar]
- Kolodny, A. Failing the Future: A Dean Looks at Higher Education in the Twenty-First Century; Duke University Press: Durham, NC, USA, 2000. [Google Scholar]
- King, J.E. Dysconscious Racism: Ideology, Identity, and the Miseducation of Teachers. J. Negro Educ. 1991, 60, 133–146. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Faircloth, S.C. Reflections on the Concept of Authentic Leadership: From an Indigenous Scholar/Leader Perspective. Adv. Dev. Hum. Resour. 2017, 19, 407–419. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Rogalin, C.L.; Hirshfield, L. Emotion and Leadership: What Scholarship on Status and Identity Can Tell Us. Sociol. Compass 2013, 7, 487–501. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Chase, S.E. Narrative Inquiry: Multiple Lenses, Approaches, Voices. In The SAGE Handbook of Qualitative Research, 3rd ed.; Denzin, N., Lincoln, Y., Eds.; SAGE: Thousand Oaks, CA, USA, 2005; pp. 651–679. [Google Scholar]
- Haug, F. Beyond Female Masochism: Memory-Work and Politics; Verso: London, UK, 1992. [Google Scholar]
- Maguire, M.H. Autoethnography: Answerability/Responsibility in Authoring Self and Others in the Social Sciences/Humanities. Forum Qual. Soc. Res. 2006, 7, 1–10. Available online: http://www.qualitative-research.net/fqs (accessed on 7 February 2018).
- Hesse-Biber, S.N.; Leavy, P. (Eds.). Emergent Methods in Social Research; SAGE: Thousand Oaks, CA, USA, 2006. [Google Scholar]
- Holman Jones, S. Autoethnography: Making the Personal Political. In The Sage Handbook of Qualitative Research, 3rd ed.; Denzin, N., Lincoln, Y., Eds.; SAGE: Thousand Oaks, CA, USA, 2005; pp. 763–792. [Google Scholar]
- Spry, T. Performing Autoethnography: An Embodied Methodological Praxis. In Emergent Methods in Social Research; Hesse-Biber, S., Leavy, P., Eds.; SAGE: Thousand Oaks, CA, USA, 2006; pp. 183–212. [Google Scholar]
- Chang, H.; Ngunjiri, F.W.; Hernandez, K.-A. Collaborative Autoethnography: Developing Qualitative Inquiry. Left Coast Press: Walnut Creek, CA, USA, 2013. [Google Scholar]
- Ngunjiri, F.W.; Hernandez, K.-A. Problematizing Authentic Leadership: A Collaborative Autoethnography of Immigrant Women of Color Leaders in Higher Education. Adv. Dev. Hum. Resour. 2017, 19, 393–406. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Acker, S.; Millerson, D. Ceilings and Cycles in Academe: A Mother-Daughter Story. Presented at the Women’s Worlds Conference, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada, 7 July 2011. [Google Scholar]
- Søderberg, A.-M. Sensegiving and Sensemaking in an Integration Process: A Narrative Approach to the Study of an International Acquisition. In Narratives We Organize By; Czarniawska, B., Gagliardi, P., Eds.; John Benjamins: Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2003; pp. 3–36. [Google Scholar]
- Lapadat, J.C. Ethics in Autoethnography and Collaborative Autoethnography. Qual. Inquiry 2017, 23, 589–603. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Neale, J. Making a Difference: National and Local Initiatives for Gender Equity in New Zealand. In Gendered Success in Higher Education: Global Perspectives; White, K., O’Connor, P., Eds.; Palgrave Macmillan: London, UK, 2017; pp. 175–193. [Google Scholar]
- Deem, R. Herding the Academic Cats: The Challenges of ‘Managing’ Academic Research in the Contemporary UK University. Perspectives 2010, 14, 37–43. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- University Grants Committee (United Kingdom). Statistics of Education 1972, Volume 6: Universities; HMSO: London, UK, 1975. [Google Scholar]
- Statistics Canada. Teachers in Universities 1990–1991, Cat. # 81-241; Minister of Industry, Science and Technology: Ottawa, ON, Canada, 1993.
- Statistics Canada. The Daily—Number and Salaries of Full-Time Teaching Staff at Canadian Universities, 2016–2017; Statistics Canada: Ottawa, ON, Canada, 2017. Available online: http://www.statcan.gc.ca/daily-quotidien/171128/dq171128b-eng.htm (accessed on 23 February 2018).
- White, K.; O’Connor, P. (Eds.) Gendered Success in Higher Education: Global Perspectives; Palgrave Macmillan: London, UK, 2017. [Google Scholar]
- Armenti, C. May Babies and Posttenure Babies: Maternal Decisions of Women Professors. Rev. High. Educ. 2003, 27, 211–231. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Acker, S.; Haque, E. Left Out in the Academic Field: Doctoral Graduates Deal with a Decade of Disappearing Jobs. Can. J. High. Educ. 2017, 47, 101–119. [Google Scholar]
- Wolverton, M.; Ackerman, R.; Holt, S. Preparing for Leadership: What Academic Department Chairs Need to Know. J. High. Educ. Policy Manag. 2005, 27, 227–238. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- de Vries, J.A.; van den Brink, M. Transformative Gender Interventions: Linking Theory and Practice Using the “Bifocal Approach.”. Equal. Divers. Incl. 2016, 35, 429–448. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Henkel, M. Gender Equality in Academic Career Progression: A Matter of Time? In The Changing Role of Women in Higher Education: Academic and Leadership Issues; Eggins, H., Ed.; Springer: Cham, Switzerland, 2017; pp. 195–207. [Google Scholar]
- Pereira, M. do M. Power, Knowledge and Feminist Scholarship: An Ethnography of Academia; Routledge: Abingdon, UK, 2017. [Google Scholar]
- Polster, C.; Amsler, S. Waking up to the reality of Canadian higher education. Acad. Matters 2017. Available online: https://academicmatters.ca/2017/11/waking-up-to-the-reality-of-canadian-higher-education/ (accessed on 26 February 2018).
- Webber, M.; Acker, S. Academic Frogs (Boiling) in the Water? How Canadian Academics Understand Accountability and Their Work in the Contemporary University. Presented at the Academic Identities Conference, Auckland, New Zealand, 27 June 2012. [Google Scholar]
- Hampton, R. Racialized Social Relations in Higher Education: Black Student and Faculty Experiences of a Canadian University. Ph.D. Thesis, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada, 2016. [Google Scholar]
© 2018 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).