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Proposal for ‘Video Design Study’ to Train the Next Generation of Visual Creators—An Examination of Video Design Study and Its Influence on a Toyota Special Exhibition

Department of Information Technology and Media Design, Nippon Institute of Technology, Miyashiro-machi, Minamisaitama-gun 345-8501, Japan
Department of Data Science, Nippon Institute of Technology, Miyashiro-machi, Minamisaitama-gun 345-8501, Japan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Educ. Sci. 2023, 13(7), 675;
Submission received: 19 May 2023 / Revised: 25 June 2023 / Accepted: 30 June 2023 / Published: 1 July 2023


Presently, in the video production community, large amounts of content are being created. Accordingly, both Arduino Uno and Raspberry Pi are significantly influencing the progression of media arts. Considering this matter, research on media arts is quite important with regard to the estimation and conception of future trends in video content and artwork. Despite this, all content that is created will eventually be forgotten over time. Therefore, when applying new technology and creating new video content, it is necessary to archive a particular movie creator’s hard work in order to save instructions for later generations on how to “design” video content. This study considers the example of projection mapping and elaborates on the importance of Video Design Study. Notably, “clarification of creating method and process”, which is a very important aspect of Video Design Study, is emphasized in this paper. In addition, a specific example of Video Design Study is introduced via the following special exhibitions: “Dreams of Kiichiro” and “Evolution of Toyota: Dreams of Kiichiro and After That.”

1. Introduction

In this manuscript, we analyze a new study area called Video Design Study and present its requirements. In addition, we offer two examples in which Video Design Study was introduced that help explain its usefulness.
Presently, large amounts of product video content are created in the video production industry. Along with traditional video content such as movies, television programs, and commercials, there are also new types of video content such as video packages, event movies, games, digital signage, and so on. It is thought that one of the reasons for this expansion is the progress of media art and computer graphics combined with the popularity of personal computers. Recently, Ref [1] showed that both Arduino Uno and Raspberry Pi influenced the progression of media arts. Therefore, research on media arts is quite important in order to estimate and conceive future trends regarding video content and artwork. Accordingly, there have been some studies on media arts research such as [2,3,4,5]. For example, Ooiwa [2] explaieds the relation between science and art, as well as the ideal situation for science communication.
On the other hand, as far as our research could determine, it was found that most of the published papers about video content in Japan were about research on movies, such as [2,3], and so they did not reflect the actual trends of the video business. This tendency in foreign countries seems to be the same as in Japan. Globally, it is suggested that this does not reflect the actual situation of the video business [6,7,8,9,10,11,12]. Furthermore, it can be said that areas such as video packaging and event movies have not been researched because, counterintuitively, these areas are not recognized as relevant video subjects.
Thus, many video creators struggle day after day to create new video content; however, all of their content will eventually be forgotten as time passes. Since this content includes video works for event screenings of limited duration and location, records of their implementation are easily lost in a short period of time. No matter how impressive a work may have been to the viewer, it will eventually be forgotten and fade into the darkness of history. As such, for applying new technology and creating new video content, it is necessary to archive the hard work of these moviemakers for the instruction of the later generations as to how to “design” video content. As for media art, up to now, it has been a success, compared to when it began in the middle of the 20th century. Media art is based on past accumulation; therefore, if it was not handed down to new artists, they could not adapt to the new technology, which might appear in the next era of media art. Thus, there is a concern that they may end up producing nothing, despite their hard work. In particular, media art consists of the fusion of various technological and academic methods, which can also change according to social trends. Thus, it is necessary for media art to be classified and systemized according to the constantly changing social situations.
As an example, we review projection mapping, which is one of the first author’s majors; additionally, the importance of Video Design Study is presented. Specifically, “clarification of creating method and process”—which is a significant aspect of Video Design Study—is emphasized in this manuscript. In addition, a specific example of Video Design Study is introduced. The content and procedures described in this paper are important and effective for the education of the next generation of video creators, and we can insist that the content within this paper is a prototype of an example of Video Design Study.
The first author of this manuscript, who was a TV program director and producer of video content, has produced numerous works of art [13,14,15,16,17,18], and she has fully realized the importance of Video Design Study. As a case study of her work, we introduce an exhibition at the Toyota Commemorative Museum of Industry and Technology, located at Nishi-ku, Nagoya, Japan. Considering this case, Video Design Study is proposed and the significance of Video Design Study is expanded.
The remainder of this paper is organized as follows. Section 2 introduces the concept of “Video Design” based on the example from the first author of this manuscript; Section 3 describes an execution example of Video Design Study; Section 4 describes how to instruct and educate creators based on Video Design Study; and Section 5 summarizes the main findings of this research, with a brief consideration for future study.

2. About Video Design

Video Design is defined as “to design movie works for a purpose.” Here, the genre of the movie is explained in order to consider the purpose of projection mapping. In the “movie area”, the category is customarily categorized by client, media administrator, and recording or transmitting media. There are no strict methods analogous to the categorization of books; moreover, the category of a movie sometimes differs by purpose, media, and content. Table 1 shows some examples of the categorization of movies.
As for projection mapping, similar to other movie content, there is little information on examples of works. Various examples of previous works were surveyed and summarized, and a list of this information was made available. This survey had been conducted for several years, and, during the survey period, there were many cases in which the websites of event organizers were deleted or published articles were missing. As for the first author’s case, the information of the event vanished because of website non-renewal, similar to the case in [19]. Therefore, it is a definite concern that this information seems to vanish. As for most works that have already been published, methods to create them and information about them have not been established; moreover, the creation process was not systematically organized. In other words, the problems of running exhibitions and creating them are not clarified. It is difficult to effectively run an exhibition and improve the technical and creative problems because the detailed information about the works of art are not of great concern to those in charge.
Thus, with regard to video design, it is of great importance to not only create the works, but to also store the information as to how they were made. As for projection mapping, an example of video design for it is introduced later; furthermore, the problems that concern the creator regarding this technique are represented by the following three points:
Making mistakes with projection mapping as well as a shortage of information;
The cost of renting projectors, preparing machines, and operating exhibitions accompanied by the overall problem of not have the appropriate budget;
Corrective interactions during the creative process and its flow are not well understood.
Next, here are some suggested solutions for the above problems:
Creators can show the difference between art, conventional movie content, and the flow of the production process to their clients. Next, the content the artists create requires a substantial budget because the project needs to have an overall essence, and they allow the clients to understand the whole undertaking. Simultaneously, the method of projection is designed according to the cost, and the equipment and materials are well-balanced and selected for the particular situation;
A checklist is made, and the roles and risks are divided; thus, the problem is prevented. In addition, projected images are shared between the people concerned after the projection test. In this case, it is considered that the projection target is not only the building wall but also the inside wall because the creators can project when it is rainy or cool. An operating manual is available in order to help smoothly manage the production. This helps to organize the equipment and materials, set the waiting place for the observer, confirm the guidance method, etc.;
The above-mentioned solutions are explained in the next subsection, where we define the systemization of this artistic process, clarify how to consistently create video or movie content, and review the construction of the method of the design video or movie content in terms of Video Design Study. Systemization of the production flow while designing artwork has not been performed so far; thus, in regard to clarifying the artistic process (projection mapping) and systemization, this process is quite important and unique.

2.1. The Creative Process of Projection Mapping

When holding an event, there are two production processes: creating movie content and managing an event. However, in order to manage an event, the method is the same as that of general events; thus, only the flow of creating movie content is covered herein.
In the process of creating movie content, such as the production process of general computer graphics and real video images, there are three flows: preproduction (preparing for the process), production (creating the movies), and postproduction (editing the movies). The most significant difference from general movie making is that there is a process in which a movie is defined according to the shape of a three-dimensional (3D) object, the nature of the projection screen, and the actual projecting of the movie onto an object. As shown in Figure 1, this means that the creative flow of the projection mapping screening event, “projection design”, “test projection”, and “preparing for projection”, are all characteristics of the creative process of projection mapping.
Next, we now present the movie making process of projection mapping:
At the meetings between the client and the creator, a thorough review is specifically carried out in order to confirm the client’s requests, their order, and the intentions of the project;
Field survey
Location scouting for the projection target or event venue is conducted, and the target is determined after the customary survey and photos are taken. In addition, the presence of a storage place for projectors, sound systems, and lighting systems is checked. The existing facility is also checked;
Material collection
Photos of subjects that are to be projected are taken, and the reference materials that are needed for creating the work, drawings, and CAD data are sought and collected. In the screening event of projection mapping, it is difficult to create works by projecting the work onto objects and checking the situation of projection because of the cost. Thus, the artists create a projection movie based on the collected materials;
Planning and constitution
The plans and concepts are examined according to the purpose of the work, and a rough story board of it is made. The creators explain these basic reference materials to their client, and they share the image of projection;
Projection design
After reviewing the drawings and the actual measured data, the projectors that are chosen are ones that have optimal brightness according to the projection distance between the projection target and the location where they are set and the projection design, such as the location of the projector, is then completed. In addition, there is a meeting between the artists and their clients about estimating the projection and projecting methods after taking photographs of the intended place, measuring 3D objects, and creating data;
A composition plan, storyboard, scenario, and continuity are created. Accordingly, meetings between the creators and their clients are held and the storyboard is modified if necessary;
Models of the 3D objects of each scene are created based on the storyboard;
Creating computer-generated imagery (CGI)
Three-dimensional CGI is created and movies are also taken, if needed;
Test projection
Some movies or still images of created works are projected and technical problems are investigated. In addition, creators, engineers, and clients check the projection and share the image and scale sensitivity to be used when the work will screen;
The data of 3D CGI objects are calculated with a PC and converted to a movie;
Editing the movies
Nonlinear editing machines are used to edit the movie, add special effects, and edit the sound;
Preparing for the projection
Tasks performed include setting up the projector in the proper spot, projection preparation from transition to media server, and the correction of projection data according to the 3D objects;
Presenting the work on the screen, and—if there are technical issues—responding to them as needed;
After the screening, a survey should be conducted. The survey results are useful materials for future events.

2.2. General Organization

In event-type projection mapping, some professional creators generally assemble a team. Accordingly, Table 2 shows an example organization of main staff, which is organized by the producers who are managing the movie’s creative process. As shown in Figure 2, the producer also manages the events around the movie, such as the budgets; the production directors; the CGI creators who embody the images and express them as movies; the technical directors who fit the movie to the projected objects; the movie technical engineers who are in charge of outputting the movies; the sound technical engineers who are in charge of the sound; and so on.
There are many cases in which the rental cost of materials, such as projectors for professional use (Figure 3), account for a large proportion of the total cost of the projection mapping event. Thus, the engineers need to conceive the intentions and the content of the projection; moreover, they should consider the effects and the budget while designing the projection. Other needs include projection materials, projectors, PCs, media servers, projection software, etc. Thus, it is recommended that technical directors, who have a lot of practical experience, choose projectors with optimal brightness. They should also use equipment which accounts for the size of projecting 3D objects, projection conditions, movie content, and cost.
In addition, staff who support the management of screening events and client managers are also needed. Effective and high-quality projection mapping can be accomplished if each staff member plays a role in understanding the purpose and intention of the work, each staff member’s work, and the technology. There are some instances where the staff takes on extra responsibilities, such as small-scale events.

2.3. Proposal for Creating Projection Mapping

The process of making projection mappings is nearly the same as that of conventional CGI movies. However, the difference between these two is their respective projection equipment—such as projectors—and the choice of output for the movie. Furthermore, it is necessary to manage various staff—such as the technical and management staff—efficiently during a projection mapping screening event. Thus, in this subsection, from the viewpoint of the authors’ experiences, useful points for efficiently creating projection mapping are introduced. Here, the following three useful points are introduced: (1) planning, (2) design for projection, and (3) management.
Meeting about the content of the work:
Using a check sheet is desirable when the creators and their clients have a meeting. Figure 4 and Figure 5 show an example of a check sheet, which has been used in exhibitions organized by the first author. First, the creators hear about the images and the size of the work, projection target, costs, and so on; subsequently, the people in charge of the exhibition are clarified and a chain of command is established;
Generally, in the case of large-scale exhibition events, companies such as advertising agencies receive an order and then forward it to the production companies; accordingly, these companies then contact each necessary creator for the project. In these situations, it is rare for clients and creators to have meetings at the first stage of the process. Thus, the clients cannot transfer their intentions and images to the creators, and they often take a lot of time to exchange ideas with each other;
However, it is necessary to have a face-to-face meeting between the projection mapping team and the clients at the first stage of meeting, as they need to share the movie vision and information with each other in order to produce better work. This is because the creators show the feasibility of works considering the client’s request, costs, and preparation time at the meeting. In addition, the risk of changing content during development can be alleviated by sharing the images of the works and exhibition scale. The CGI quality of projection mapping—which uses a large screen—is often higher than that of normal high-vision movies (1920 × 1080 pixels). Therefore, it is important to have had enough meetings at the storyboard stage because it takes a lot of time for rendering and it is also difficult to change the content of the production along the way;
Selection of the projection location:
It is accepted that screening under the darkest conditions possible is the ideal setting. Thus, the creators have their team check whether there are electric lights and neon signs that will obstruct the viewing. If necessary, the creators will negotiate with the people concerned to turn off the lights and neon signs during the projection time. In addition, the creators select the screening location, taking into account whether the event at the place will make noise because music is going to be played during the screening. Finally, the creators look into whether there is room for cutting cost by utilizing existing equipment and human resources;
Location of the audience and the machines:
Observers of various ages and nationalities would come to a highly public place such as a park or a museum. In advance, the creators would choose what kinds of observers would come to the exhibition in order to decide on the maintenance of projection machines, content, audiences, screening time, guidance, security, and safety. In addition, the creators would review the observers’ immersive feelings with regard to the content; thus, the creators can produce their works more effectively from the point of the best location for observation. Considering this, an execution plan is made according to the observers’ guidelines and management methods;
Projection design:
Careful projection design for the preliminary preview, drawings, measured data, and cost is needed because projection to plain and 3D objects is needed for projection mapping;
Drawing and taking photos of materials:
As an advance preparation for projection design, the locations of the power supply, electric wiring, and projection location are checked based on photographs of architectural drawings and projection targets. Moreover, the arrangement of the location and observers’ flow line is simulated based on the drawing, and the brightness on the scheduled projection date is checked. Next, the number of projectors that offer effective brightness are estimated, and, finally, the location of the projectors is determined;
Projection time:
The projection is effective because the movie looks brighter if the surroundings are darker. Thus, the sunset time of the scheduled projection date and the brightness around the screening place are checked in advance; subsequently, the screening start time is determined, considering the closing time of the screening place and the flow of observers;
Measuring and trial screening:
It is ideal that the projectors project movies from the front of the target objects. However, these projectors need to be located outside the observers’ field of vision as well as their flow. Thus, these projectors cannot always project from an optimal location; notably, at the preview of the exhibition place, the location of the projectors needs to be determined by checking the floor plan and elevation, electrical schematic diagram, and so on. As such, the factors that seem to be obstacles to screening events—such as outside light and night light—are also checked, and, if necessary, the creators adjust them with the appropriate people;
In addition, a projection test using a sample movie is performed in advance at the exhibition place. Accordingly, there should be an inspection of the images of the creator’s works when they are projected, such as the scale of the exhibition place and the movie’s speed. This test projection is an important process to increase the motivation of the related persons (creators, engineers, and clients) because the images of the works along with the atmosphere are shared between them through this test projection;
The cost of the machines:
The cost of middle or high-scale projection mapping is often accompanied by the cost of high-brightness projectors, the rental cost of machines such as the transmission server, and the labor cost of the technical staff. Thus, it is difficult to rent machines for a long period, and so it is necessary to shorten the time required to set up and adjust the machine. In addition, the creators need to have enough meetings with the projection engineers according to the projection content and scale. Furthermore, they also need to design the projection according to the result of the total consideration of the selection of effective and appropriate projectors, movie format, cost, etc.;
In projection mapping, event management is needed, along with creating movies and projecting them. In the case of management of middle- and large-scale projection mapping projects, many persons are involved in the project, and the movies are projected by projectors. Thus, it is important that the roles of the involved person are divided into two manageable functions: “Creating and projecting the movie” and “Holding an event” (Figure 6). For smooth screening event management, clarifying the content and scope of work is effective. In addition, the scope of work is clarified by the roles being divided into two: command roles and communication roles. The role and scope of charge is clarified—leading to smooth management—by writing command roles and the name of each person in charge in a management manual;
It is important to consult clients in advance based on a check sheet in order to have a successful screening. It is also important to responsibly clarify each work, utilizing resources such as observers, security, management of voltage, support of projection, and so on;
The number of people involved in managing the event of the day is one of the causes of an increase in cost. Thus, client-side staff, who are familiar with the place where the event is held, are to be utilized. By doing so, the event runs smoothly, and it is not necessary to add any more staff on that particular day. As a result, this brings about a reduction in the total cost that is needed for the event and also enhances the efficiency of the event;
In addition, the operating manual of the event and event schedule are arranged. The content and scope of each of these are realized by manuals, figures, and tables, and the image of the projection is shared with the creators and the event operators. Each work is shared based on each technique, after discussions with a person in charge. The first author suggests the importance of these factors; moreover, the needs of manpower are clarified based on the consideration of these visualized materials;
Furthermore, it seems that the clients have a deeper knowledge about the creative process and cost after being involved in the screening and collaboration with the creators. By doing so, the people concerned can share the common movie vision, reducing the risk of them changing its content and, thereby, affecting the overall production. From the results of the experiment by the first author, this approach reduces the total cost; thus, this approach seems to be an effective one.

2.4. Proposal of the Evaluation Method

As for the evaluation method of making movies, the following three methods are proposed.
Quantitative evaluation:
This is a quantitative evaluation, using the number of attendees, observers, and proceeds. This is an objective and easily understood evaluation;
Evaluation based on organizer comments:
This is an evaluation of the organizers’ responses and comments, based on an interview survey conducted by the organizer. An interview survey is held to verify whether the event matched the same image as the organizer had. It is also conducted to determine whether the purpose that the organizer had wanted was in fact achieved, or, in other words, whether the organizer had been satisfied with the achievement of the event. This is a subjective evaluation; however, this sort of straight opinion or comment is useful information for future works and their improvement;
Evaluation based on a questionnaire:
An evaluation of the work, as well as the screening to the observers, is needed in order to determine the observers’ impressions or their specific reactions. A questionnaire actually used in one such event is shown in Section 3 (Figure 7). The items of the questionnaire included inquiries about the attendees’ impressions of the work, whether they understood the images in the work, if they could match the work to the place of exhibition, the genders of the observers, and future expectations. In fact, the results of the questionnaire and the comments can influence the next exhibition and other works. However, in the case of nighttime and outside events, it seems to be difficult to find an adequate place to answer the questionnaire. Thus, it is desirable to introduce a method to answer the questionnaire using a smartphone or a website.

3. Introducing the Proposed Methods

In Section 2, an effective method for the management of projection mapping events was introduced. In this section, a projection mapping event, which involved this paper’s first author, is introduced as a practice case of the proposed methods.

3.1. An Example of Creating the Projection Mapping Works: “Dreaming the Future”

In Section 3, we explain how projection mapping works; which ones have been carried out by the first author; and how they were created, from planning to screening. The works were screened as a special exhibition, celebrating the 20th anniversary of the Toyota Commemorative Museum of Industry and Technology. Here, the entire process, from planning to screening, was implemented, the event’s execution was clarified, and the effect and evaluation were explained. In this case, the term “effect” means whether the meaning or intention of the projection mapping was the same as the one envisioned by the creator. Therefore, the results of the questionnaire completed by the clients and the observers was used as an evaluation method. In addition, an example of the execution of the projection design—which is important for screening—and the management are also introduced.
  • Title of work: A special exhibition celebrating the 20th anniversary of the Toyota Commemorative Museum of Industry and Technology called “Evolution of Toyota: Dreams of Kiichiro and After That”—Projection mapping: “Dreaming the future”;
  • Dates: December 6 and 7, 2014 (screened two times per day);
  • Location: The entrance hall at the Toyota Commemorative Museum of Industry and Technology;
  • Screening time: Approximately seven minutes;
  • Projection methods: Six projectors (Panasonic PT-DZ13K, 12,000 [lm]) connected, desktop PC (Mac Pro), media server, audio equipment, etc.;
  • Projection technique: Projection mapping to three wall surfaces;
  • Sizes: 3050 [cm] × 2219 [cm] × 1000 [cm].

3.2. Background of the Presentation

The Toyota Commemorative Museum of Industry and Technology, which is constructed of symbolic red bricks, was opened in order to preserve the Toyota Industries Corporation Sakoo Factory, which is of industrial heritage, at Sakoo, Nishi-ku, Nagoya, Aichi, in June, 1994 (Figure 8). The aim of this facility was to hand down to the world the “Spirits of research and creation” of Sakichi Toyoda, who is famous for the invention of a loom. Moreover, it was used to present the “Manufacturing spirits” of Kiichiro Toyoda, who is the eldest son of Sakichi Toyoda and is the founder of Toyota Jidosha Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha (now Toyota Motor Corporation). This facility also introduced the systematic transition of the textile industry and automotive technology as part of the history of Japanese industrial technology (Figure 9). The machine collection is exhibited in a functional condition; accordingly, this museum is renowned as a world-leading institution, with 370,000 people visiting each year.
Two special exhibitions of the Dreams of Kiichiro exhibition were held. The first, from 28 June 2014 to 15 September 2014, was entitle Evolution of Toyota: Dreams of Kiichiro; the second, entitled After That, was held from 15 October 2014 to 14 December 2014. These special exhibitions celebrated the 20th anniversary of the Toyota Commemorative Museum of Industry and Technology, as well as the 120th anniversary of the birth of Kiichiro Toyoda, who lived in the following three eras: the Meiji, the Taisho, and the Showa. He started producing a car from scratch to overcome many hardships, such as the war and the danger of bankruptcy, and he is known as the pioneer of the automotive industry in Japan. The first author was requested to create content based on the museum; thus, she begun creating a projection mapping called “Dreaming the Future”.
At the meeting stage, a hearing was held using the check sheet that was introduced in Section 2.3. The museum proposed that they would like the projection mappings to be accompanied by a story reflecting their special exhibition as well as their permanent exhibition regarding Kiichiro’s dreams and desires for manufacturing. Consequently, the first author proposed a plan for the projection mapping at the entrance hall, where a circular loom stands that Sakichi Toyoda (Kiichiro’s father) developed and is now a symbol of research and creation (Figure 10). This created a concept, that the projection mapping used a space encompassing a dream of technology that had been passed down from Sakichi to Kiichiro—that is, from a father to his child. In addition, the method of utilization of the white-and-flat wall, the relation of the museum’s exhibition, and the significance of the location were reviewed. Notably, these works aimed not only to surprise the observers by showing an interesting movie such as breaking a wall and an illusory movie, but to show the trajectory of Kiichiro’s dreams and development of technology as a “video poem”, creating a space in which to show this concept (Figure 11).

3.3. Concept of Work

The work was aimed at representing image manufacturing and dreams as movies. The presentation began from a scene in which a silhouette of Kiichiro Toyoda appears in the blue sky along with cotton flowers—which are a symbol of the loom, referring to Toyota’s origin—which soar higher and higher. The flowers gathering in the brick factory weave yarn, and then the yarn is weaved into cloth. This cloth changes to gears, and then automobiles are built via the rhythmical movement of machines. The movie shows that the automobile runs through many eras, and it finally flies into the sky. This scene symbolizes Toyota’s worldwide development and its plans for the future. Simultaneously, the movie sends the message that weak and small things, such as cotton flowers, grow up with dreams, passions, and efforts, and the cotton flowers developing into powerful, large machines also expresses the attraction of manufacturing. In addition, a part of this projection mapping’s title, “Future”, which is “Mirai” in Japanese, also had an intention, in that MIRAI is the name of Toyota’s hydrogen-fueled vehicle that was released during the same time as this exhibition. In summary, the movie showed the situation in which the dreams of a person evolved toward the next-generation automobile and then the future after that.

3.4. Planning and Design of Projection Mapping

In this exhibition, the planning and design of projection mapping was carried out as follows. The area located in the museum had less traffic at night; thus, the observers were considered as people who would like to observe the exhibition after they toured the museum rather than people passing by it. Accordingly, the movie’s content was created with the intent of relating to the exhibited items in the museum:
Choosing the projection location:
Because the ideal place for projection is an area with dimmed lights, in the case of this event, the projection location was chosen with regard to whether there were electric lights and outside lights; whether or not the light of the place could be dimmed; whether or not there were noise affects from outside; and so on. Finally, the entrance hall was chosen and three of its walls were used for the projected work. Notably, the work could not be projected on the outer walls of the museum because they were under construction and the season of the exhibition featured cold weather, as well as considerations of the specific intentions of the special exhibition, budget, and the risk of management;
The distance between the work and observation:
In the previewing of the museum, the observation area was chosen that would be the best position for observers. Placed at the center of the entrance hall was a circular autonomous loom designed by Sakichi Toyoda, which is the symbol of the museum. Thus, the observation area was designated under the condition that the observers could view the works in an area away from the circular autonomous loom. It was discovered that overall work could not be seen if observers were too close. Thus, it was also found that the best area for observing the work was approximately 10 m away from the front wall, and the observers were requested to not enter the area near the front wall. In addition, the seating capacity of the entrance hall was for 500 people; however, the seating capacity during screening was restricted to 250 people;
Projection design:
Careful advance preparation and projection design were conducted because the work would be projected onto 3D objects;
The position of voltage and electric wiring, and the area where the works could be screened, was checked based on architectural drawings, and the placement simulation was performed in advance;
Time of projection:
Projectors can effectively screen in dark surroundings even if they have low brightness. The sunset time on the exhibition date and available light around the museum was confirmed, and the first starting time was set at 5:40 p.m., which was based on the museum’s closing time of 5:00 p.m.;
Measurement and trial screening:
The location of the projector and wiring diagram was reviewed at the museum. A circular autonomous loom was located at the entrance hall; thus, six projectors were used to screen the work to each wall, avoiding the loom’s shadow affecting the screening. During the preview, photographs were taken from the planned location of each projector. It was investigated whether there were obstacles in the way of the projection and the screen management such as outside light; moreover, the lights-out time and the way to move the machines were adjusted. A 3000 [lm] commercial projector was brought to the museum in advance, and a projection test of the sample movie was directed onto the surface of the walls. The brightness of the projected movie was lower than that of the actual exhibition; however, the size and feel, along with a sense of speed, were shared between the creators and the people in charge of the museum;
Cost of the machines:
The cost of creating projection mapping is part of the rental cost for institutional-use high definition (HD) high-brightness projectors, servers for output movies, as well as the labor costs for the technical staff. Thus, considering the above-mentioned items, one day was taken for setting up and preparation, one day was taken for preview, and two days were needed for the exhibition.

3.5. Machines for Projection and Staff Structure

Six projectors were used for the screening. In fact, two of them were used for blending the projection onto three surfaces of the wall. Blending projection is a technique that seamlessly projects movies from certain projectors. The movie was divided into three parts and was composed of three streams of projection data compatible with the specifications of the three output PCs. The projected movie was adjusted according to the shape of the surface of the wall using Resolume Arena projection mapping software; accordingly, the output institutional-use HD and high-brightness projectors from the media server were located in the control room and were connected via a local area network (LAN).
In addition, assignment of individual tasks was requested by the technical engineers, who were concerned with efficiency. The reason is that all of the tasks had to be finished by the time required for configuring the machines—from 5:00 p.m., the closing time of the museum, to 9:00 a.m., the openign time of the next day. The tasks needed to be separated in case they were finished in a short time, which is an important factor in ensuring stable operation and avoiding risks.
The machines and software used for creating the movies were Autodesk 3ds Max, Adobe After Effects, and Edius. The formation of the movies with these machines and software is shown in Figure 12. The movie was rendered as a 4646 × 1080-sized movie when selecting the locations for projection based on the architectural drawing. This was put into place in order to seamlessly move the movie, by connecting the three surfaces of the wall (front wall, left wall, and right wall). Finally, a movie composed of approximately seven minutes of 3D CGI animation was delivered.
The entire process took place over three months, which is quite a short period of time. Thus, the production team, which included the first author, was in charge of making the movies and establishing the projection technology. The museum’s staff were in charge of operating the exhibition and the public relations, such as making posters and leaflets for public relations, publishing press releases, promotional website content, setting up the event venue, and making and setting up signage. Many individuals, including the first author, had meetings with the museum staff in order to operate the actual exhibition in advance; each work assignment was clarified by sharing the total process information, which was based on the check sheet.
The number of staff who managed the event on the actual exhibition day is a major reason for increasing costs; thus, the museum staff was in charge of managing the attendees, maintenance and voltage, and support of the projection. Figure 6 shows the composition of the staff. During the actual exhibition, 30 staff members were involved in management, guidance, and announcements. By utilizing the staff, who were well-acquainted with the museum, effective operation of the exhibition was enabled, which then reduced the total cost for the exhibition.

3.6. Evaluation of the Proposed Method

The actual exhibition was held two times per day, at 5:40 p.m. and 6:20 p.m., on 6 and 7 December 2015. The capacity of this event was 250 people each time, and the work was shown four times. More than 1000 people attended, and the event was profitable (Figure 13). The staff of the museum also concluded that this production was very successful. In addition, various media, such as newspapers and the Nagoya tourism website, acknowledged this event.
The trial screening event was held on December 5, which was the day before the actual exhibition. Representatives from companies, museums, universities, and mass communication groups, as well as city hall officials, attended the occasion. Subsequently, 40 people answered the questionnaire (Figure 4) about the work (Figure 14, Figure 15, Figure 16 and Figure 17). In due course, 37 people (92.5%) responded with “very good” or “good” as their evaluation of the work. A total of 24 people (60.0%) answered with “beautiful” with regard to the images of the work; 21 attendees (52.5%) answered “the work has a storyline.” Thus, it was confirmed that the observers could understand the concept of a beautiful movie telling the story of Toyota’s history, which was the creator’s intention. A total of 39 people (97.5%) answered that they “would like to see other works”, and, consequently, almost all of the observers had a positive opinion about the presentation. With regard to the actual management of the screening event, all went well, and it operated smoothly by using a check sheet, which was shown in Section 2. After reviewing the above-mentioned results, it can be said that this manuscript presents a practical and useful method for a successful video production.

4. Prospects for Creator Education

The “Video Design Study” presented in this paper is characterized not only by its advocacy, but also by the fact that its effectiveness is supported by the author’s practical results. Therefore, we believe that the content of this paper can be used as a reference material for the transmission of technology based on practice. There have been examples of systematic resources, such as integrating media design into engineering education and introducing design thinking methods into mechanical engineering (such as in [20]), but, until now, there have been no systematically organized resources such as the one presented in this paper specifically for video production. Therefore, the quality of creator education has varied from creator to creator. In addition, the recipients of education were often occupied with time other than filmmaking, so they were unable to concentrate on improving the quality of their filmmaking. The use of systematic materials such as those described in this paper will enable creators to follow the sequence of events from filmmaking to exhibition. Moreover, by passing on the flow of the “Video Design Study” as described in this paper, we believe that it will be possible to create a new generation of videos without being confused by new technologies, while ensuring efficiency and quality. On the other hand, for creators who educate, it is expected that, by brushing up the framework presented in this paper to reflect the knowledge unique to the video production technology of the new era based on the framework presented in this paper, they will be able to educate video creators on adapting to the times, while still following the basic flow of video production. It is expected that, by brushing up on the framework presented in this paper, it will be possible to provide education for filmmakers that is adapted to the times, based on the basic flow of image production.

5. Conclusions

In this manuscript, the new subject of Video Design Study was proposed, and its requirements were presented. Moreover, Video Design Study was demonstrated and explained through the review of two special exhibitions: “Dreams of Kiichiro” and “Evolution of Toyota: Dreams of Kiichiro and After That”. Video Design Study is a very important study area that is necessary in order to create the new era’s artwork from the point of view of efficiency and quality. However, we believe that Video Design Study is still in its early stages; thus, we should work to improve the framework and concept of this new area. In the future, design methods based on Video Design Study will be applied in order to create and demonstrate other artwork. Additionally, efforts will continue to be made to improve the efficiency and quality of this new subject.

Author Contributions

Conceptualization, methodology, software, J.S.; investigation, writing, review and editing, J.S. and T.A. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.


Research was partially supported by the Ministry of Education, Science, Sports and Culture, Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C), 2017-2020 (17K00738).

Institutional Review Board Statement

Not applicable.

Informed Consent Statement

Not applicable.

Data Availability Statement

Not applicable.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

References and Notes

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Figure 1. The production process of the projection mapping screening event. The dotted line indicates the specific process of the projection mapping.
Figure 1. The production process of the projection mapping screening event. The dotted line indicates the specific process of the projection mapping.
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Figure 2. Display of a screening event.
Figure 2. Display of a screening event.
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Figure 3. Projectors for professional use.
Figure 3. Projectors for professional use.
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Figure 4. Projection mapping check sheet made by the first author.
Figure 4. Projection mapping check sheet made by the first author.
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Figure 5. Facilities preparation check sheet made by the first author.
Figure 5. Facilities preparation check sheet made by the first author.
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Figure 6. An example of organization for a projection mapping screening event (in this case, an exhibition introduced in Section 3).
Figure 6. An example of organization for a projection mapping screening event (in this case, an exhibition introduced in Section 3).
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Figure 7. An example of a questionnaire (in this case, for an exhibition introduced in Section 3).
Figure 7. An example of a questionnaire (in this case, for an exhibition introduced in Section 3).
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Figure 8. The Toyota Commemorative Museum of Industry and Technology.
Figure 8. The Toyota Commemorative Museum of Industry and Technology.
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Figure 9. Permanent exhibition at the Toyota Commemorative Museum of Industry and Technology.
Figure 9. Permanent exhibition at the Toyota Commemorative Museum of Industry and Technology.
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Figure 10. The entrance hall, at the center of which, a circular loom is located.
Figure 10. The entrance hall, at the center of which, a circular loom is located.
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Figure 11. Projection to center, left, and right wall surfaces.
Figure 11. Projection to center, left, and right wall surfaces.
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Figure 12. Locations of the six projectors.
Figure 12. Locations of the six projectors.
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Figure 13. Images of a screening event.
Figure 13. Images of a screening event.
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Figure 14. The silhouette of Kiichiro Toyoda appeared on a brick wall.
Figure 14. The silhouette of Kiichiro Toyoda appeared on a brick wall.
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Figure 15. Cotton flowers fly into the sky and gather.
Figure 15. Cotton flowers fly into the sky and gather.
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Figure 16. Clothes gradually change into gears.
Figure 16. Clothes gradually change into gears.
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Figure 17. A Toyoda Model AA flies into the sky.
Figure 17. A Toyoda Model AA flies into the sky.
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Table 1. Summary of movie areas.
Table 1. Summary of movie areas.
Movie AreaPurpose/ContentMain Client
(1)TV program
(news, entertainment,
educational program)
Create TV program and
broadcast via radio wave
TV station, sponsor of
TV program
(2)CommercialCreate commercial movie
and advertise companies or
organization via media
Advertising agency,
sponsor of TV program
(3)Theatrical moviesCreate movies and
screening at cinema
Movie company,
production committee
imagery (CGI)
Create movies by CGI or
handwriting; open to
the public
TV station, movie
(5)Web movieCreated as advertisement,
recordings, or prototype
Advertising agency,
(6)Video package,
industrial movie
Create movie according to
the purpose: advertisement,
Company, public
organization, museum,
school, etc.
(7)Music videoCreate original movie
according to the image
of the music
Record company,
music office, etc.
(8)GameMovies which are used
in a game or its trailer
Game developer
(9)Events/entertainmentEvent or exhibition for
an anniversary, regional
promotion, or movie for
play facility at an
amusement park
Advertising agency,
company, organization,
municipalities, tourism
association, executive
committee, etc.
(10)AdvertisementScreening advertisement
or trailer on digital
signage or a large screen
Advertising agency,
company, public
organization, etc.
Table 2. Main staff required for management of a screening event and their job description.
Table 2. Main staff required for management of a screening event and their job description.
PositionJob Description
ProducerGeneral manager from planning to screening
Creative directorExecutive producer of spatial presentation and the movie
CGI creatorCreates CGI and other special effects
Technical directorThe engineer who projects the movies to the objects
Movie technical engineerSets the projectors and is responsible for the operation
Sound technical engineerResponsible for the tuning and outputting of sounds
Event directorResponsible for the management of an event
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Sugimori, J.; Arakawa, T. Proposal for ‘Video Design Study’ to Train the Next Generation of Visual Creators—An Examination of Video Design Study and Its Influence on a Toyota Special Exhibition. Educ. Sci. 2023, 13, 675.

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Sugimori J, Arakawa T. Proposal for ‘Video Design Study’ to Train the Next Generation of Visual Creators—An Examination of Video Design Study and Its Influence on a Toyota Special Exhibition. Education Sciences. 2023; 13(7):675.

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Sugimori, Junko, and Toshiya Arakawa. 2023. "Proposal for ‘Video Design Study’ to Train the Next Generation of Visual Creators—An Examination of Video Design Study and Its Influence on a Toyota Special Exhibition" Education Sciences 13, no. 7: 675.

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