# Relations between Math Achievement, Math Anxiety, and the Quality of Parent–Child Interactions While Solving Math Problems

^{1}

^{2}

^{3}

^{4}

^{5}

^{6}

^{7}

^{*}

^{†}

## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

#### 1.1. Quality of Parental Involvement in Homework

#### 1.2. Parent Math Anxiety and Math Achievement in the Context of Math Homework Help

#### 1.3. Child’s Math Anxiety and Math Achievement in the Context of Math Homework Help

#### 1.4. Assessments of the Math Homework-Helping Interaction

## 2. The Present Study

## 3. Method

#### 3.1. Participants

_{age}= 43.5 years) reported that they were the primary math homework-helping parents. Parents reported a range of education levels: some college with no diploma (15%); college diploma (25%); bachelor’s degree (32.5%); master’s degree (22.5%); and doctoral degree (5%). The median education level was a bachelor’s degree. As for the children, 13 were in Grade 5 (n = 10 girls; M

_{age}= 10.0 years), 21 were in Grade 6 (n = 13 girls; M

_{age}= 11.0 years), and 6 were in Grade 7 (n = 2 girls; M

_{age}= 11.8 years).

#### 3.2. Materials

#### 3.2.1. Mathematics Anxiety

#### 3.2.2. Generalized Anxiety

#### 3.2.3. Mathematics Achievement

#### 3.2.4. Math Homework Task

#### 3.2.5. Quality of the Homework-Helping Interaction

#### 3.3. Procedure

## 4. Results

#### 4.1. Describing the Quality of the Simulated Math Homework Task Interaction

#### 4.1.1. Parental Behavior

#### 4.1.2. Dyadic Interaction

#### 4.2. Hypotheses

#### 4.2.1. Hypothesis 1: The Quality of the Interaction and Simulated Math Homework Task Performance

#### 4.2.2. Hypothesis 2: The Quality of the Interaction and Math Achievement

#### 4.2.3. Hypothesis 3: The Quality of the Interaction and Math Anxiety

## 5. Discussion

#### 5.1. Relations between the Quality of Interaction and Task Performance

#### 5.2. Relations between the Quality of the Interaction and Math Achievement

#### 5.3. Relations between the Quality of the Interaction and Math Anxiety

## 6. Limitations and Future Research

## 7. Implications and Conclusions

## Supplementary Materials

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Institutional Review Board Statement

## Informed Consent Statement

## Data Availability Statement

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

## Appendix A

1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

1. Parent’s General Anxiety | -- | 0.14 | 0.19 | −0.02 | 0.14 | −0.15 | 0.27 | 0.02 | 0.05 | −0.15 | −0.20 | 0.14 | 0.13 | 0.03 | −0.05 | 0.07 | 0.15 |

2. Child’s General Anxiety | -- | 0.28 | 0.75 ** | 0.07 | −0.25 | −0.03 | −0.06 | −0.20 | −0.04 | −0.28 | −0.12 | −0.00 | −0.16 | −0.13 | −0.20 | 0.09 | |

3. Parent’s Math Anxiety | -- | 0.44 ** | −0.36 * | −0.22 | −0.27 | −0.20 | −0.23 | −0.06 | −0.03 | −0.24 | −0.01 | −0.22 | −0.22 | −0.04 | −0.03 | ||

4. Child’s Math Anxiety | -- | −0.20 | −0.09 | −0.33 * | −0.35 * | −0.46 ** | −0.16 | −0.43 ** | −0.38 * | −0.22 | −0.44 ** | −0.37 * | −0.33 * | 0.01 | |||

5. Parent’s Math Achievement | -- | 0.14 | 0.49 ** | 0.37 * | 0.47 ** | 0.07 | 0.32 * | 0.17 | 0.42 ** | 0.44 ** | 0.34 * | 0.33 * | 0.02 | ||||

6. Child’s Math Achievement | -- | 0.31 | 0.37* | 0.03 | −0.16 | 0.13 | 0.34 * | 0.11 | 0.22 | 0.18 | 0.26 | 0.07 | |||||

7. Math Task Score | -- | 0.56 ** | 0.59 ** | −0.02 | 0.54 ** | 0.73 ** | 0.51 ** | 0.61 ** | 0.37 * | 0.59 ** | −0.03 | ||||||

8. Parental Sensitivity | -- | 0.67 ** | 0.40 * | 0.56 ** | 0.69 ** | 0.69 ** | 0.84 ** | 0.69 ** | 0.61 ** | 0.30 | |||||||

9. Respect for Child’s Rhythm | -- | 0.14 | 0.74 ** | 0.60 ** | 0.75 ** | 0.78 ** | 0.62 ** | 0.62 ** | 0.32 * | ||||||||

10. Parental Effort | -- | 0.22 | 0.10 | 0.31 * | 0.42 ** | 0.34 * | −0.01 | 0.29 | |||||||||

11. Relaxation | -- | 0.58 ** | 0.60 ** | 0.76 ** | 0.60 ** | 0.75 ** | 0.14 | ||||||||||

12. Neutrality–Joy | -- | 0.53 ** | 0.76 ** | 0.51 ** | 0.64 ** | 0.28 | |||||||||||

13. Intimacy | -- | 0.82** | 0.54 ** | 0.52 ** | 0.50 ** | ||||||||||||

14. Coordination | -- | 0.73 ** | 0.70 ** | 0.47 ** | |||||||||||||

15. Appropriate Roles | -- | 0.52 ** | 0.33 * | ||||||||||||||

16. Synchronized Emotions | -- | 0.20 | |||||||||||||||

17. Attention Centered on Task | -- |

## References

- Duncan, G.J.; Dowsett, C.J.; Claessens, A.; Magnuson, K.; Huston, A.C.; Klebanov, P.; Pagani, L.S.; Feinstein, L.; Engel, M.; Brooks-Gunn, J.; et al. School Readiness and Later Achievement. Dev. Psychol.
**2007**, 23, 1428. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Green Version] - Hart, S.A.; Ganley, C.M.; Purpura, D.J. Understanding the home math environment and its role in predicting parent report of children’s math skills. PLoS ONE
**2016**, 11, e0168227. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Green Version] - Daucourt, M.C.; Napoli, A.R.; Quinn, J.M.; Wood, S.G.; Hart, S.A. The Home Math Environment and Math Achievement: A Meta-Analysis. Psychol. Bull.
**2021**, 147, 565. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed] - Ashcraft, M.H. Math anxiety: Personal, educational, and cognitive consequences. Curr. Dir. Psychol. Sci.
**2002**, 11, 181–185. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Guzmán, B.; Rodríguez, C.; Ferreira, R.A. Effect of parents’ mathematics anxiety and home numeracy activities on young children’s math performance-anxiety relationship. Contemp. Educ. Psychol.
**2023**, 72, 102140. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Soni, A.; Kumari, S. The Role of Parental Math Anxiety and Math Attitude in Their Children’s Math Achievement. Int. J. Sci. Math. Educ.
**2017**, 15, 331–347. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Szczygieł, M. When does math anxiety in parents and teachers predict math anxiety and math achievement in elementary school children? The role of gender and grade year. Soc. Psychol. Educ.
**2020**, 23, 1023–1054. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Maloney, E.A.; Ramirez, G.; Gunderson, E.A.; Levine, S.C.; Beilock, S.L. Intergenerational effects of parents’ math anxiety on children’s math achievement and anxiety. Psychol. Sci.
**2015**, 26, 1480–1488. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version] - The Varkey Foundation. Global Parents’ Survey. 2018. Available online: https://www.varkeyfoundation.org/media/4340/vf-parents-survey-18-single-pages-for-flipbook.pdf (accessed on 7 March 2023).
- Doctoroff, G.L.; Arnold, D.H. Doing homework together: The relation between parenting strategies, child engagement, and achievement. J. Appl. Dev. Psychol.
**2017**, 48, 103–113. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Gonida, E.N.; Cortina, K.S. Parental involvement in homework: Relations with parent and student achievement-related motivational beliefs and achievement. Br. J. Educ. Psychol.
**2014**, 84, 376–396. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version] - Cooper, H.; Lindsay, J.J.; Nye, B. Homework in the home: How student, family, and parenting-style differences relate to the homework process. Contemp. Educ. Psychol.
**2000**, 25, 464–487. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed] - Epstein, J.L.; van Voorhis, F.L. More than minutes: Teachers’ roles in designing homework. Educ. Psychol.
**2001**, 36, 181–193. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Wilder, S. Effects of parental involvement on academic achievement: A meta-synthesis. Educ. Rev.
**2014**, 66, 377–397. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Moss, E.; Humber, N.; Roberge, L. Grille D’interactions Parent-Enfant Pour les Périodes Préscolaire et Scolaire; Unpublished Manuscript; Université du Québec à Montréal: Montreal, QC, Canada, 1996. [Google Scholar]
- Barroso, C.; Ganley, C.M.; McGraw, A.L.; Geer, E.A.; Hart, S.A.; Daucourt, M.C. A meta-analysis of the relation between math anxiety and math achievement. Psychol. Bull.
**2021**, 147, 134–168. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Namkung, J.M.; Peng, P.; Lin, X. The relation between mathematics anxiety and mathematics performance among school-aged students: A meta-analysis. Rev. Educ. Res.
**2019**, 89, 459–496. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Zhang, J.; Zhao, N.; Kong, Q.P. The relationship between math anxiety and math performance: A meta-analytic investigation. Front. Psychol.
**2019**, 10, 1613. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version] - Bronfenbrenner, U. Ecology of the family as a context for human development: Research perspectives. Dev. Psychol.
**1986**, 22, 723. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Eccles, J.S. Families, schools, and developing achievement-related motivations and engagement. In Handbook of Socialization: Theory and Research; Grusec, J.E., Hastings, P.D., Eds.; The Guilford Press: New York, NY, USA, 2007; pp. 665–691. [Google Scholar]
- Boonk, L.; Gijselaers, H.J.M.; Ritzen, H.; Brand-Gruwel, S. A review of the relationship between parental involvement indicators and academic achievement. Educ. Res. Rev.
**2018**, 24, 10–30. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Hoover-Dempsey, K.V.; Sandler, H.M. Parental involvement in children education: Why does it make a difference? Teach. Coll. Rec.
**1995**, 97, 311–331. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Hoover-Dempsey, K.V.; Battiato, A.C.; Walker, J.M.T.; Reed, R.P.; DeJong, J.M.; Jones, K.P. Parental involvement in homework. Educ. Psychol.
**2001**, 36, 195–209. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Dumont, H.; Trautwein, U.; Nagy, U.G.; Nagengast, B. Quality of parental homework involvement: Predictors and reciprocal relations with academic functioning in the reading domain. J. Educ. Psychol.
**2014**, 106, 144. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Chen, C.; Stevenson, H.W. Homework: A cross-cultural examination. Child Dev.
**1989**, 60, 551–561. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed] - Hill, N.E.; Tyson, D.F. Parental involvement in middle school: A meta-analytic assessment of the strategies that promote achievement. Dev. Psychol.
**2009**, 45, 740–763. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Green Version] - Pomerantz, E.M.; Eaton, M.M. Maternal intrusive support in the academic context: Transactional socialization processes. Dev. Psychol.
**2001**, 37, 174–186. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed] - Ginsburg, G.S.; Schlossberg, M.C. Family-based treatment of childhood anxiety disorders. Int. Rev. Psychiatry
**2002**, 14, 143–154. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Alreshidi, A.M.; Alsharif, K.M.; Kandeel, R.A.A. Five important parental involvement variables that affect young children’s mathematical achievements: A comparative study. Educ. Urban Soc.
**2022**, 54, 187–195. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Cosso, J.; Finders, J.K.; Duncan, R.J.; Schmitt, S.A.; Purpura, D.J. The home numeracy environment and children’s math skills: The moderating role of parents’ math anxiety. J. Exp. Child Psychol.
**2023**, 227, 105578. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - DiStefano, M.; O’Brien, B.; Storozuk, A.; Ramirez, G.; Maloney, E.A. Exploring math anxious parents’ emotional experience surrounding math homework-help. Int. J. Educ. Res.
**2020**, 99, 101526. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Retanal, F.; Johnston, N.B.; di Lonardo Burr, S.M.; Storozuk, A.; Distefano, M.; Maloney, E.A. Controlling-supportive homework help partially explains the relation between parents’ math anxiety and children’s math achievement. Educ. Sci.
**2021**, 11, 620. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Leone, C.M.; Richards, H. Classwork and homework in early adolescence: The ecology of achievement. J. Youth Adolesc.
**1989**, 18, 531–548. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Trautwein, U.; Niggli, A.; Schnyder, I.; Lüdtke, O. Between-teacher differences in homework assignments and the development of students’ homework effort, homework emotions, and achievement. J. Educ. Psychol.
**2009**, 101, 176–189. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version] - Oh, D.D.; Barger, M.M.; Pomerantz, E.M. Parents’ math anxiety and their controlling and autonomy-supportive involvement in children’s math learning: Implications for children’s math achievement. Dev. Psychol.
**2022**, 58, 2158–2170. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed] - Wu, J.; Barger, M.M.; Oh, D.; Pomerantz, E.M. Parents’ daily involvement in children’s math homework and activities during early elementary school. Child Dev.
**2022**, 93, 1347–1364. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Dubois-Comtois, K.; Cyr, C.; Moss, E. Attachment behavior and mother-child conversations as predictors of attachment representations in middle childhood: A longitudinal study. Attach. Hum. Dev.
**2011**, 13, 335–357. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed] - Hunt, T.E.; Maloney, E.A. Appraisals of previous math experiences play an important role in math anxiety. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci.
**2022**, 1515, 143–154. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed] - Cameron, L.; Bartel, L. Homework Realities: A Canadian Study of Parental Opinions and Attitudes. 2008. Available online: https://policycommons.net/artifacts/1228088/homework-realities/1781157/ (accessed on 7 March 2023).
- Hopko, D.R.; Mahadevan, R.; Bare, R.L.; Hunt, M.K. The Abbreviated Math Anxiety Scale (AMAS): Construction, validity, and reliability. Assessment
**2003**, 11, 178–182. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed] - Ma, M.; Li, D.; Zhang, L. Longitudinal prediction of children’s math anxiety from parent-child relationships. Learn. Individ. Differ.
**2021**, 88, 102016. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Wang, Z.; Hart, S.A.; Kovas, Y.; Lukowski, S.; Soden, B.; Thompson, L.A.; Plomin, R.; McLoughlin, G.; Bartlett, C.W.; Lyons, I.M.; et al. Who is afraid of math? Two sources of genetic variance for mathematical anxiety. J. Child Psychol. Psychiatry
**2014**, 55, 1056–1064. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version] - Spielberger, C.D. State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Adults. APA Psyc. Tests.
**1983**. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Spielberger, C.D. State-Trait Anxiety Inventory: Bibliography, 2nd ed.; Consulting Psychologists Press: Palo Alto, CA, USA, 1989. [Google Scholar]
- Julian, L.J. Measures of anxiety: State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Anxiety (HADS-A). Arthritis Care Res.
**2011**, 63, S467–S472. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version] - Spielberger, C.D.; Lushene, R.E.; Montuori, J.; Platzek, D. The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children (Preliminary Manual); Consulting Psychologists Press: Palo Alto, CA, USA, 1973. [Google Scholar]
- Kirisci, L.; Clarck, D.B. Reliability and validity of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children in an adolescent sample: Confirmatory factor analysis and item response theory. J. Child Adolesc. Subst. Abuse
**1992**, 5, 57–70. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Schrank, F.A.; Wendling, B.J. The Woodcock-Johnson IV: Tests of cognitive abilities, tests of oral language, tests of achievement. In Contemporary Intellectual Assessment: Theories, Tests and Issues, 1st ed.; The Guilford Press: New York, NY, USA, 2018; pp. 383–451. [Google Scholar]
- Mather, N.; Wendling, B.J. Examiner’s Manual: Woodcock Johnson IV Tests of Achievement; Rolling Meadows: Riverside, IL, USA, 2014. [Google Scholar]
- Ontario Ministry of Education. The Ontario Curriculum, Grades 1–8: Mathematics. 2005. Available online: https://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/document/curricul/elementary/math1-8e.pdf (accessed on 7 March 2023).
- Bureau, J.F.; Yurkowski, K.; Schmiedel, S.; Martin, J.; Moss, E.; Pallanca, D. Making children laugh: Parent-child dyadic synchrony and preschool attachment. Infant. Ment. Health J.
**2014**, 35, 482–494. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed] - Bureau, J.F.; Trepiak, P.; Deneault, A.A.; Boulerice, K. Stability of father- and mother-child synchrony in a playful setting from preschool to middle childhood: Associations with children’s behavior problems. Early Child Res. Q.
**2021**, 57, 167–177. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Moss, E.; St-Laurent, D. Attachment at school age and academic performance. Dev. Psychol.
**2001**, 37, 863–874. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed] - McGrew, K.S.; LaForte, E.M.; Schrank, F.A. Technical Manual; vol. Woodcock-Johnson IV; Rolling Meadows: Riverside, IL, USA, 2014. [Google Scholar]
- Hudson, J.L.; Rapee, R.M. Parent-child interactions and anxiety disorders: An observational study. Behav. Res. Ther.
**2001**, 39, 1411–1427. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Else-Quest, N.M.; Hyde, J.S.; Hejmadi, A. Mother and child emotions during mathematics homework. Math. Think. Learn.
**2008**, 10, 5–35. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Ministry of Education. Stay Involved in your Child’s Education. Government of Ontario. 2022. Available online: https://www.ontario.ca/page/stay-involved-your-childs-education (accessed on 7 March 2023).

**Figure 2.**Distribution of Parent–Child Dyads’ Performance on the Simulated Math Homework Task. N = 40.

Parents | Children | |||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Mean | SD | Range | Mean | SD | Range | |

General Anxiety | 1.96 | 0.55 | 1.05–3.55 | 1.67 | 0.40 | 1.10–2.65 |

Math Anxiety | 2.25 | 0.96 | 1.00–4.67 | 2.31 | 0.86 | 1.22–4.44 |

Math Achievement | 536.95 | 14.72 | 503.00–565.00 | 490.93 | 17.60 | 450.00–526.00 |

Math Task Score | 80.58 | 22.87 | 18.20–100 | 80.75 | 22.61 | 18.20–100 |

Parental Behavior | ||||||

Parental Sensitivity | 2.96 | 0.59 | 1.50–4.00 | |||

Respect for Child’s Rhythm | 3.23 | 0.79 | 1.00–4.00 | |||

Parental Effort | 3.58 | 0.53 | 2.00–4.00 | |||

Dyadic Interaction | ||||||

Relaxation ^{a} | 3.19 | 0.71 | 1.00–4.00 | 3.19 | 0.71 | 1.00–4.00 |

Neutrality–Joy ^{a} | 2.83 | 0.50 | 1.50–4.00 | 3.28 | 0.63 | 1.50–4.00 |

Intimacy ^{a} | 3.15 | 0.59 | 2.00–4.00 | 3.15 | 0.59 | 2.00–4.00 |

Coordination ^{a} | 3.08 | 0.68 | 2.00–4.00 | 3.07 | 0.68 | 2.00–4.00 |

Appropriate Roles ^{a} | 3.26 | 0.72 | 1.50–4.00 | 3.26 | 0.72 | 1.50–4.00 |

Synchronized Emotions ^{a} | 3.28 | 0.63 | 1.50–4.00 | 3.28 | 0.63 | 1.50–4.00 |

Attention Centred on Task ^{a} | 3.34 | 0.62 | 1.50–4.00 | 3.33 | 0.62 | 1.50–4.00 |

^{a}applies to both parent and child.

1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

1. Parent’s General Anxiety | -- | 0.19 | 0.14 | 0.14 | −0.02 | −0.16 |

2. Parent’s Math Anxiety | -- | −0.37 * | 0.28 | 0.44 ** | −0.22 | |

3. Parent’s Math Achievement | -- | 0.07 | −0.20 | 0.14 | ||

4. Child’s General Anxiety | -- | 0.75 ** | −0.25 | |||

5. Child’s Math Anxiety | -- | −0.09 | ||||

6. Child’s Math Achievement | -- |

Subscales | Task Performance | Math Achievement | Math Anxiety | ||
---|---|---|---|---|---|

Parent | Child | Parent ^{a} | Child ^{b} | ||

Parental Behavior | |||||

Parental Sensitivity | 0.56 ** | 0.37 * | 0.37 * | −0.21 | −0.46 ** |

Respect for Child’s Rhythm | 0.59 ** | 0.46 ** | 0.03 | −0.24 | −0.49 ** |

Parental Effort | −0.02 | 0.07 | −0.16 | −0.03 | −0.19 |

Dyadic Interactions | |||||

Relaxation | 0.54 ** | 0.31 * | 0.13 | 0.01 | −0.35 * |

Neutrality–Joy | 0.73 ** | 0.17 | 0.34 * | −0.27 | −0.45 ** |

Intimacy | 0.51 ** | 0.42 ** | 0.11 | −0.03 | −0.33 * |

Coordination | 0.61 ** | 0.44 ** | 0.22 | −0.23 | −0.50 ** |

Appropriate Roles | 0.37 * | 0.34 * | 0.17 | −0.22 | −0.42 ** |

Synchronized Emotions | 0.59 ** | 0.32 * | 0.26 | −0.06 | −0.39 * |

Attention Centred on Task | −0.03 | 0.02 | 0.07 | −0.06 | −0.09 |

^{a}partial correlations controlling for parents’ general anxiety;

^{b}partial correlations controlling for children’s general anxiety; * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01.

Disclaimer/Publisher’s Note: The statements, opinions and data contained in all publications are solely those of the individual author(s) and contributor(s) and not of MDPI and/or the editor(s). MDPI and/or the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to people or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content. |

© 2023 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

## Share and Cite

**MDPI and ACS Style**

DiStefano, M.; Retanal, F.; Bureau, J.-F.; Hunt, T.E.; Lafay, A.; Osana, H.P.; Skwarchuk, S.-L.; Trepiak, P.; Xu, C.; LeFevre, J.-A.;
et al. Relations between Math Achievement, Math Anxiety, and the Quality of Parent–Child Interactions While Solving Math Problems. *Educ. Sci.* **2023**, *13*, 307.
https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci13030307

**AMA Style**

DiStefano M, Retanal F, Bureau J-F, Hunt TE, Lafay A, Osana HP, Skwarchuk S-L, Trepiak P, Xu C, LeFevre J-A,
et al. Relations between Math Achievement, Math Anxiety, and the Quality of Parent–Child Interactions While Solving Math Problems. *Education Sciences*. 2023; 13(3):307.
https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci13030307

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

DiStefano, Michela, Fraulein Retanal, Jean-François Bureau, Thomas E. Hunt, Anne Lafay, Helena P. Osana, Sheri-Lynn Skwarchuk, Philip Trepiak, Chang Xu, Jo-Anne LeFevre,
and et al. 2023. "Relations between Math Achievement, Math Anxiety, and the Quality of Parent–Child Interactions While Solving Math Problems" *Education Sciences* 13, no. 3: 307.
https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci13030307