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A Model of Scientific Data Reasoning

Psychology Department, Hofstra University, Hempstead, NY 11549, USA
Educational Psychology Department, Kent State University, Kent, OH 44242, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Moritz Krell, Andreas Vorholzer and Andreas Nehring
Educ. Sci. 2022, 12(2), 71;
Received: 24 August 2021 / Revised: 8 January 2022 / Accepted: 12 January 2022 / Published: 20 January 2022
Data reasoning is an essential component of scientific reasoning, as a component of evidence evaluation. In this paper, we outline a model of scientific data reasoning that describes how data sensemaking underlies data reasoning. Data sensemaking, a relatively automatic process rooted in perceptual mechanisms that summarize large quantities of information in the environment, begins early in development, and is refined with experience, knowledge, and improved strategy use. Summarizing data highlights set properties such as central tendency and variability, and these properties are used to draw inferences from data. However, both data sensemaking and data reasoning are subject to cognitive biases or heuristics that can lead to flawed conclusions. The tools of scientific reasoning, including external representations, scientific hypothesis testing, and drawing probabilistic conclusions, can help reduce the likelihood of such flaws and help improve data reasoning. Although data sensemaking and data reasoning are not supplanted by scientific data reasoning, scientific reasoning skills can be leveraged to improve learning about science and reasoning with data. View Full-Text
Keywords: data reasoning; scientific reasoning; statistics education; numerical cognition; cognitive development; number sense data reasoning; scientific reasoning; statistics education; numerical cognition; cognitive development; number sense
MDPI and ACS Style

Masnick, A.M.; Morris, B.J. A Model of Scientific Data Reasoning. Educ. Sci. 2022, 12, 71.

AMA Style

Masnick AM, Morris BJ. A Model of Scientific Data Reasoning. Education Sciences. 2022; 12(2):71.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Masnick, Amy M., and Bradley J. Morris. 2022. "A Model of Scientific Data Reasoning" Education Sciences 12, no. 2: 71.

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