Visual Arts in the University Educational Ecosystem: Analysis of Schools of Knowledge
- What has been the distribution of scientific production?
- What are the main schools of knowledge?
- What are the future research directions that this topic addresses?
2. Data and Method
2.1. Method and Data Collection
- Identification: detected 359,900 records from the Scopus database, considering each of the key search terms (visual and art) and “all fields”, “all type of documents”, and “all the data published in the data range (all years—March 2021).
- Screening: the option “article title, abstract, and keywords” was chosen in the field of each search term, so that 317,158 records were excluded.
- Eligibility: of the 42,742 records, only “articles” were selected as the type of document to ensure the quality derived from the peer review process. In addition, the search was restricted from the origin to the last full year (2020). In this phase, 21,780 records were excluded.
- Included: It this phase the search was limited to the thematic area “Arts and Humanities”. Then, 19,235 of the 20,962 records were excluded, so the final sample included 1727 articles (open and non-open access).
2.2. Data Processing
2.3. Research Limitations
3. Results and Discussion
3.1. Scientific Production Analysis
3.2. Keyword Analysis: Identification of Schools of Knowledge
- Cluster 1 (Art): This line of research examines the link of the concept “art”, understood as any activity or object carried out with an aesthetic and communicative purpose, to express ideas, emotions, and a particular vision of the world. In this theme, art has been strongly associated with “visual art” to defy expectations, in addition to creative and cultural limits [7,48]. Likewise, the research develops the concept of ekphrasis, referring to the verbal representation of a visual representation, real or fictitious, and inserted in a narrative. Along the same line, the relationship between the notion of aesthetics and art has been studied, establishing borders with beauty, creativity, and sensitivity, through historical and geographical variables, to define the society of the image and diffuse aestheticization [49,50]. The scientific production of this school of knowledge has also overseen relating art with feminism, language, pedagogy, subjectivity, politics, propaganda, psychoanalysis, religion, typography, anthropology, calligraphy, digital art, graphic novel, or iconology. The act of creativity develops the imagination, which favors having an open mind and facilitating the understanding of different realities. In this sense, learning to understand the qualities of the environment helps university students to train and produce unlimited creative solutions [51,52]. The associated countries/territories are China, Japan, and Modena (Italy).
- Cluster 2 (Visual Culture): This thematic line developed the term “visual culture” referring to visual realities, especially artificial ones, that express and shape the way of thinking and feeling of man. This term was coined in the 18th century, where aesthetics and the history of art were born, to interpret the artificial images that emerged from the Antiquity [7,53]. The connotations, realities, and meanings of visual culture throughout history have set the trends for the transmission of messages and have motivated man to express and model different ways of thinking, living, and loving. An example is the case of the most famous French cartoonist, Honoré Daumier, imprisoned for lampooning the King in 1831 . This line of research is associated with painting, contemporary art, street art, graffiti, identity, visual perception, conservation, landscape, portrait, art therapy, conceptual art, cultural identity, creative process, humor, decoration, or energy conservation, among other terms. Visual culture is related to visual literacy and ICT. The creation of educational, dynamic, and interactive spaces that result in new cognitive and emotional experiences are relevant to today’s society: globalized and image centered, these are the key to higher education [27,55]. Likewise, the main associated regions are Catalonia (Spain), Florence (Italy), Naples (Italy), Germany, India, and Singapore.
- Cluster 3 (Modernity): The third school of knowledge is led by the term “modernity” referring to social and historical processes originating in Europe since the Renaissance. Its continuous analysis suggests that it is anchored to a new type of society that arose from the great transformations that occurred in Europe and North America, and that culminated in the industrial and democratic revolutions, which began in the late 18th and early 19th centuries [56,57]. The changes produced in the history of art throughout history have been linked to the change of knowledge in society and philosophical and scientific theories. The changes produced in the history of art over time have been linked to various events related to the evolution of society, philosophical theories, and scientific advances. This has generated on many occasions the idea that, to enjoy art, one must have a certain aesthetic sensitivity and the previous knowledge of the artist’s creative process . This component is associated with architecture, culture, embroidery, heritage, graphic design, realism, museum, television, avant-garde art, criticism, historiography, nationalism, tapestry, theology, or transculturation, among other terms. The regions linked to the development of this line of research are New York (United States), Nigeria, Paris (France), and Sweden.
- Cluster 4 (Music): This school of knowledge is directed by the term “music”. The English critic Roger Fry in 1912 developed the concept of visual music by linking both elements, and making reference to the work of the Russian artist Wassily Kandinsky, whose paintings merge the perception of hearing and sight . This research describes how sound is a symptom of movement and that sound can also be seen with the eye. In this sense, visual music participates in both art and technology, where its representatives have been obsessed with seeing sound or listening to images, from Victorian science rooms to digitally animated staging . This line of research is associated with physiology, synesthesia, visual music, abstract animation, altarpieces, experimental film, performing art, abstract art, abstract film, cosmopolitanism, or electromyography, among other terms. The drawn or graphic sound constitutes a field that is in continuous expansion and a starting point to represent and experience emotions or feelings that university students pass through in a visual way . The countries linked to this line of knowledge are Finland and South Africa.
- Cluster 5 (History): This fifth line of research is led by the term “history” and its association with visual art. At a global level, research developed the study of visual culture and artistic processes in modern societies, from the invention of the printing press, enabling the dissemination of images, to globalized concepts of visual culture, with new technologies and the digital humanities [15,56,59,60]. It is a school of knowledge with an interdisciplinary approach that relates the history of art with visual studies, including the renewal of artistic perspectives and approaches, graphics, documentaries, and other tools to involve and approach the collective imagination . This thematic line is linked with education, imagination, astronomy, ethnology, science, symbolism, anatomy, migration, anamorphosis, exile, precarity, or psychiatry, among other terms. This line of knowledge is primarily associated with Europe.
3.3. Evolution of Keywords: Future Directions of Research
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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(see Figure 2)
|%||Main Keyword||Top 10 Associated Keywords|
|1, pink||52%||Art||Visual Art||Image|
|2, green||20%||Visual Culture||Painting||Identity|
|Contemporary Art||Visual Perception|
|Material Culture||Museum Education|
|Abstract Animation||Performing Arts|
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González-Zamar, M.-D.; Abad-Segura, E. Visual Arts in the University Educational Ecosystem: Analysis of Schools of Knowledge. Educ. Sci. 2021, 11, 184. https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci11040184
González-Zamar M-D, Abad-Segura E. Visual Arts in the University Educational Ecosystem: Analysis of Schools of Knowledge. Education Sciences. 2021; 11(4):184. https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci11040184Chicago/Turabian Style
González-Zamar, Mariana-Daniela, and Emilio Abad-Segura. 2021. "Visual Arts in the University Educational Ecosystem: Analysis of Schools of Knowledge" Education Sciences 11, no. 4: 184. https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci11040184