Dad as a Coach: Fatherhood and Voluntary Work in Youth Sports
2. Previous Research
Fatherhood and Informal Learning in Sports Coaching
3. Materials and Methods
3.1. Theoretical Considerations
3.2. Empirical Material
4.1. The Dual Position: Being a Father and Being a Coach
Magnus: If you should highlight, like, particular challenges of being the coach of your own child. What would that be?
Andy: (1) ah (1) yes, it’s that you are also a parent (1) ah, and (1) to a child, this can be pretty hard to differentiate, when you act as a father and when you act as a coach, sort of. Sometimes, at least. That’s, that’s a pretty big challenge. Particularly in relation to your OWN child. Like, during training and matches and stuff. And stuff like that. Like, not favor [your own child], but rather think that he’s just one in the team, along with everyone else. That’s a challenge, I think. And then to (2) To not step in. When you’re a coach, like, not step into the same conflicts on the training pitch that you can have at home. About the same (.) to bring a lot of nagging and conflicts on to the training and stuff like that. To really try to (.) cut that off when you start the training or the match. Now it’s the team in focus and the things we discussed earlier as father-son, that’s something to deal with afterwards. That can be, it IS definitely a challenge I think.
Magnus: I’m thinking that (.) How does being a parental coach effect your relation? How does it effect, like, the child-parent relation?
Freddy: It is effected (1) I’m in a grey-zone [mm] In that I (.) can also see in our everyday life. Ah, like you have to eat, because you have to practice. Like, that’s a parental part but it is also a coach part. Like, I know you’re going to be tired during practice, you won’t be able cope with this. Because I have seen you there if you haven’t been eating. So, at home it is everything. So, I’m a coach at home also. That’s what I’ve always done. We are a sports family. I don’t know how I’ve been (.) if I haven’t been their coach. But I think I’m always somewhat their coach. Always. Even at home. I know that – now you have to eat, now you need this because your about to go to practice soon and I don’t want you to be as prepared as you can, because I know what happens if you are not. But, I think I’m always acting a little bit as a coach. That, that’s tough (.) or tough and tough, yes (1) I’m not sure we’re you can draw the line but. Between parent-, because I know too much about what they are doing and that results in me poking on what they are doing instead of just giving them praise. Like, that’s good, that was funny. Did you have fun? (1) Like, I already know what happened during practice (.) all the time.
4.2. Balancing between Care and Performance
Magnus: Are you any different towards him ((your son)) at home in contrast to football training?
Freddy: (8) Ah (2). That was tricky (2) yes, I am the coach at football practice so to speak and I am a father at home. But, as I said before, it’s a grey zone. I have them both in gymnastics and football practice. I’m coaching them three times a week in football and in gymnastics two. So we’re together all afternoons and evenings. Just in different environments. If we’re at home, well that’s one environment. But, but it’s hard to separate (ha-ha) I have all the boys at my house anyway so. Ah (3) I’m trying to be more close and more loving at home than during practice. There I’m maybe more technical and more objective. (3) less feelings in practice than at home, I think (2). Trying. It’s probably hard. It is.
Luc: […] but, but now he’s XX ((year the child is born)). So I see that next year, I hope that they don’t have any parents as coaches. But we will see.
Magnus: What, what (.) What is it that makes you hope for that?
Luc: Like, I think it is (.) partly it is. It is ALWAYS that. It doesn’t matter what people say! Like either you are too kind or you are too hard (HA-HA (Appendix A)) on your son, or something like that. It’s like that.
Magnus: Have you talked about it. Or is it something you-
Dick: -we have, like. I little bit, like what he thinks. About me holding the training sessions. And I can ask him a bit about, like, what he thinks. If I’m too harsh.
Magnus: and what does he answer?
Dick: Ah (2) Yeah, but he can say that I can be tough, sort of. Like, in training. But (.) he is so used to it. Maybe more than other kids are. A bit more maybe, things in order. Like, if there’s a training, it doesn’t work if everyone’s in a pile. Ah, because training time is ticking, sort of. That’s how (.) I live at home also, sort of. Somehow, that’s. No, but that is how we have discussed a bit. And I KNOW he thinks it’s good when I attend the training.
Freddy: Well, some kids who wants to play. While we have two groups, they are easy-players ((referring to the division level they are playing at)), but the parents wants them to play in hard, but they are not at that level. Then we’re trying to explain to them that we are not dividing the team so that the better get better, but for the easier to have an easier environment. But they don’t understand that. They think that we have selected the best and then there are these left. But I would say that it is the other way around […]
Magnus: The goal is care for the weak?
Freddy: I would say, I don’t want to say weak. They haven’t got as far. They have another interest and another goal […]. I don’t want to say that they are worse or better. They have these three different levels that are different than those how (.) so that’s interest, skills and goalsetting that are different. And then we have chosen these different parts.
4.3. Coaching as Quality-Time and the Autonomous Child
Magnus: Do you think that your relation has changed (.) by you being coach?
Dick: Ah (4) No, but I think it has strengthened (.) even more. Because I know that he appreciates when I‘m at the training (.) and holding the training than if I’m not.
Ah, and you know each other inside and out, sort of, like that. So I can see if they are excited ((in Swedish: taggade)) or not as excited. Like, in training. You can talk about it afterwards and sort of, like (.) No, I was tired or I had a sore throat or (.) Sort of like that. So it has only been strengthened and it´s been more now since we started playing more and more matches. So, so that’s fun to feel. When you feel like, like his competitive instinct. And just that, fuck we were good! We won, or we did a good game or (1) we lost but, like, fought. So, so it has definitely been strengthened. It is only positive.
John: […] and if he no longer want to play? I would step down from the coach’s role (.) immediately.
Leon: NOT A CHANCE! I would quit directly. Then there are a lot of other things to spend time on. Not a chance that I should continue!
Conflicts of Interest
|[ ]||overlapping utterances|
|(.)||micropause, shorter than (0.5)|
|-1||pauses in seconds|
|(x) (xxx)||inaudible word(s)|
|° °||speech in low volume|
|(( ))||transcriber’s comments|
|no no||underlining for emphatic stress|
|-||cut-off sign; self-editing|
- Von Essen, J.; Wallman Lindåsen, S. Ideellt ledarskap inom idrottsrörelsen [Voluntary Leadership within the Sports Movement]. FOU-Report 2016:3; Swedish Sports Confederation: Stockholm, Sweden, 2016. [Google Scholar]
- Swedish Sports Confederation. Sport a Part of Growing up. 2019. Available online: https://idrottonline.se/Riksidrottsforbundet/Barn-ochungdomsidrott/ (accessed on 21 December 2019).
- Lyle, J. Sports Coaching Concepts: A Framework for Coaches´ Behavior; Routledge: London, UK, 2002. [Google Scholar]
- Bergmann Drewe, S. An examination of the relationship between coaching and teaching. Quest 2000, 52, 79–88. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Svender, J.; Nordensky, J. Jämställdhet Bland Idrottens Ledare [Equality Among Sport Leaders]. FOU-Report 2019:1; Swedish Sports Confederation: Stockholm, Sweden, 2019. [Google Scholar]
- Coakley, J. The good father: Parental expectations and youth sports. Lei. Stud. 2006, 25, 153–163. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Elliott, S.K.; Drummond, M.J. Parents in youth sport: What happens after the game? Sport Educ. Soc. 2015, 22, 391–406. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Gottzen, L.; Kremer-Sadlik, T. Fatherhood and youth sports: A balancing act between care and expectations. Gen. Soc. 2016, 26, 639–664. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Fransson, G.; Grannäs, J. Dilemmatic spaces in educational contexts: Towards a conceptual framework for dilemmas in teachers’ work. Teach. Teach. Theory Pract. 2013, 19, 4–17. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Duffy, B.E. (Not) Getting Paid to do What you Love: Gender, Social Media and Aspirational Work; Yale University Press: New Haven, CT, USA, 2017. [Google Scholar]
- Smith, D.H. Altruism, volunteers and volunteerism. J. Vol. Act. Res. 1981, 10, 21–36. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Stiernstedt, F.; Golovko, I. Volunteering as media work: The case of Eurovision song contest. Culture Unbound. 2019, 11, 231–251. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Holmberg, L. The future of childhood studies? Reconstructing childhood with ideological dilemmas and metaphorical expressions. Childhood 2018, 25, 158–172. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Côté, J. The influence of the family in the development of talent in sport. Sport Psychol. 1999, 13, 395–417. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Qunito Romani, A. Parental behavior and children´s sports participation. Evidence from a Danish longitudinal study. Sport Educ. Soc. 2020, 3, 332–347. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Maertz jr, C.P.; Griffeth, R.W. Eight motivational forces and voluntary turnover: A theoretical synthesis with implications for research. J. Man 2004, 30, 667–683. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Eliasson, I. Child-rearing in public spaces: The challenging dual-role relationships of parent–coaches and child–athletes of coaches in Swedish team sports. Sport Educ. Soc. 2018. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Kilger, M.; Börjesson, M. Searching for talent: The construction of the legitimate selection in sports. Scan. Sports Stud. For. 2015, 6, 85–105. [Google Scholar]
- Holt, N.L.; Tamminen, K.A.; Black, D.E.; Mandigo, J.L.; Fox, K.R. Youth sport parenting styles and practices. J. Sport Exerc. Psychol. 2009, 31, 37–59. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Stefansen, K.; Smette, I.; Strandbu, Å. Understanding the increase in parents’ involvement in organized youth sports. Sport Educ. Soc. 2018, 3, 162–172. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Harrington, M. Sport and leisure as contexts for fathering in Australian families. Lei. Stud. 2006, 25, 65–83. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Connell, R.W. Masculinities; Polity Press: Sydney, Australia, 1995. [Google Scholar]
- Anderson, E. Inclusive Masculinities: The Changing Nature of Masculinities; Routledge: London, UK, 2010. [Google Scholar]
- Gavanas, A. Fatherhood Politics in the United States: Masculinity, Sexuality, Race, and Marriage; University of Illinois Press: Champaign, IL, USA, 2004. [Google Scholar]
- Riessman Kohler, C. Narrative Methods for the Human Sciences; Sage: London, UK, 2008. [Google Scholar]
- Kilger, M. Talent stories in youth sports: Discursively shared narratives of success. Narrat. Inq. 2017, 27, 48–66. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Bamberg, M. Why narrative? Narrat. Inq. 2012, 22, 202–210. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Bamberg, M.; Georgakopoulou, A. Small stories as a new Perspective in narrative and identity analysis. Text Talk 2008, 28, 377–396. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Kilger, M.; Jonsson, R. Talent production in interaction: Performance appraisal interviews in talent selection camps. Comm. Sport 2017, 5, 110–129. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Phoenix, A. Analyzing narrative contexts. In Doing Narrative Research; Andrews, M., Squire, C., Tamboukou, M., Eds.; Sage: Thousand Oaks, CA, USA, 2008. [Google Scholar]
- Cohen, L.; Manion, L.; Morrison, K. Research Methods in Education, 6th ed.; Routledge: London, UK, 2007. [Google Scholar]
- Jefferson, G. Glossary of transcript symbols with an introduction. In Conversation Analysis: Studies from the First Generation; Lerner, G.H., Ed.; John Benjamins: Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2004; pp. 13–31. [Google Scholar]
- Potter, J. Representing Reality: Discourse, Rhetoric and Social Construction; Sage: London, UK, 1996. [Google Scholar]
- Swedish Research Council. God Forskningsed [Good Research Honour]; Vetenskapsrådet: Stockholm, Sweden, 2017. [Google Scholar]
© 2020 by the author. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Share and Cite
Kilger, M. Dad as a Coach: Fatherhood and Voluntary Work in Youth Sports. Educ. Sci. 2020, 10, 132. https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10050132
Kilger M. Dad as a Coach: Fatherhood and Voluntary Work in Youth Sports. Education Sciences. 2020; 10(5):132. https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10050132Chicago/Turabian Style
Kilger, Magnus. 2020. "Dad as a Coach: Fatherhood and Voluntary Work in Youth Sports" Education Sciences 10, no. 5: 132. https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10050132