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Physicochemical Properties of Gac (Momordica cochinchinensis (Lour.) Spreng) Seeds and Their Oil Extracted by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide and Soxhlet Methods

1
School of Environmental and Life Sciences, University of Newcastle, Ourimbah NSW 2258, Australia
2
Faculty of Bio-Food Technology and Environment, University of Technology (HUTECH), Ho Chi Minh City 700000, Vietnam
3
Central Coast Primary Industries Centre, NSW Department of Primary Industries, Ourimbah NSW 2258, Australia
4
School of Science and Health, Western Sydney University, Penrith NSW 2751, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Technologies 2018, 6(4), 94; https://doi.org/10.3390/technologies6040094
Received: 25 September 2018 / Revised: 5 October 2018 / Accepted: 9 October 2018 / Published: 11 October 2018
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PDF [554 KB, uploaded 11 October 2018]

Abstract

Gac seeds are high in oil, but there are few studies on its extraction and characteristics. This study aimed to characterise Gac seeds and investigate the physicochemical properties of Gac seed oil extracted with supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) and hexane (Soxhlet). The Gac seed kernel accounted for 66.4 ± 2.7% of the seed weight, and 53.02 ± 1.27% of it was oil. The SC-CO2 oil had a higher quality than the Soxhlet oil for important criteria, such as peroxide (0.12 ± 0.02 vs. 1.80 ± 0.01 meq O2/kg oil), free fatty acid (1.74 ± 0.12 vs. 2.47 ± 0.09 mg KOH/g oil) and unsaponifiable matter (33.2 ± 1.5 vs. 52.6 ± 2.4 g/kg) values, respectively. It also had a better colour (light yellow vs. dark greenish brown) and a higher antioxidant capacity measured with the DPPH (52.69 ± 0.06 vs. 42.98 ± 0.02 µmol Trolox equivalent/g oil) and ABTS (2.10 ± 0.12 vs. 1.52 ± 0.06 µmol Trolox equivalent/g oil) assays. However, a higher yield (53.02 ± 1.27 vs. 34.1 ± 0.8%) was obtained for the Soxhlet oil. Unless refined, the oils would not be edible due to their high unsaponifiable matter, but the SC-CO2 oil would need less refining. Alternatively, the high unsaponifiable matter in the oil, especially in the Soxhlet oil, may make it useful for medicinal purposes. View Full-Text
Keywords: Momordica cochinchinensis; Gac seeds; oil; characteristics; supercritical carbon dioxide; Soxhlet Momordica cochinchinensis; Gac seeds; oil; characteristics; supercritical carbon dioxide; Soxhlet
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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V. Le, A.; E. Parks, S.; H. Nguyen, M.; D. Roach, P. Physicochemical Properties of Gac (Momordica cochinchinensis (Lour.) Spreng) Seeds and Their Oil Extracted by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide and Soxhlet Methods. Technologies 2018, 6, 94.

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