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Technologies 2017, 5(4), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/technologies5040068

Quantification of Feto-Maternal Heart Rate from Abdominal ECG Signal Using Empirical Mode Decomposition for Heart Rate Variability Analysis

Department of Instrumentation and Control Engineering, Dr. B. R. Ambedkar National Institute of Technology, Jalandhar, Punjab 144011, India
These authors contributed equally to this work.
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Received: 12 September 2017 / Revised: 10 October 2017 / Accepted: 18 October 2017 / Published: 21 October 2017
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Abstract

In this paper, a robust method of feto-maternal heart rate extraction from the non-invasive composite abdominal Electrocardiogram (aECG) signal is presented. The proposed method is based on the Complete Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition with Adaptive Noise (CEEMDAN) method, in which a composite aECG signal is decomposed into its constituent frequency components called Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMFs) or simply “modes”, with better spectral separation. Decomposed IMFs are then selected manually according to probable maternal and fetal heart rate information and are processed further for quantification of maternal and fetal heart rate and variability analysis. The proposed method was applied to aECG recordings collected from three different sources: (i) the PhysioNet (adfecgdb) database; (ii) the PhysioNet (nifecgdb) database; and (iii) synthetic aECG signal generated from mathematical modeling in the LabVIEW software environment. An overall sensitivity of 98.83%, positive diagnostic value of 97.97%, accuracy of 96.93% and performance index of 96.75% were obtained in the case of Maternal Heart Rate (MHR) quantification, and an overall sensitivity of 98.13%, positive diagnostic value of 97.62%, accuracy of 95.91% and performance index of 95.69% were obtained in case of Fetal Heart Rate (FHR) quantification. The obtained results confirm that CEEMDAN is a very robust and accurate method for extraction of feto-maternal heart rate components from aECG signals. We also conclude that non-invasive aECG is an effective and reliable method for long-term FHR and MHR monitoring during pregnancy and labor. The requirement of manual intervention while selecting the probable maternal and fetal components from “n” number of decomposed modes limits the real-time application of the proposed methodology. This is due to the fact that the number of modes “n” produced by the CEEMDAN decomposition is unpredictable. However, the proposed methodology is well suited for applications where a small time-delay or offset in feto-maternal monitoring can be acceptable. In future, application-specific modification of the CEEMDAN algorithm can be implemented to eliminate manual intervention completely and will be suitable for long-term feto-maternal monitoring. View Full-Text
Keywords: fetal; maternal; heart rate variability; empirical mode decomposition; CEEMDAN; abdominal ECG; LabVIEW fetal; maternal; heart rate variability; empirical mode decomposition; CEEMDAN; abdominal ECG; LabVIEW
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Bin Queyam, A.; Kumar Pahuja, S.; Singh, D. Quantification of Feto-Maternal Heart Rate from Abdominal ECG Signal Using Empirical Mode Decomposition for Heart Rate Variability Analysis. Technologies 2017, 5, 68.

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