# The History of Computing in Iran (Persia)—Since the Achaemenid Empire

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## Abstract

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## 1. Introduction

- Examining the evolution of computing from its inception to the present in Iran;
- Presenting a history of computing in the Achaemenid Empire followed by a study of the computing equipment utilized;
- Covering the industrialization of society, the construction of a computer-related educational system, the expansion of data networks, and the emergence of new computing platforms in Iran.

## 2. Ancient Age

#### 2.1. Mesopotamian Accounting Tokens

#### 2.2. Babylonian Mathematics

#### 2.3. Tally Stick

**Split tally**

**Single tally**

#### 2.4. Abacus

#### 2.5. Algebra and Arithmetic

## 3. Modern Age

#### 3.1. The Appearance of Modern Computers in Iran

#### 3.2. The Development of Computers

#### 3.3. Persian Computer

#### 3.4. The Growth of Local Computing Systems

#### 3.5. Internet

#### 3.5.1. First Website and First ISP

#### 3.5.2. The Internet Penetration

#### 3.6. Software

#### 3.7. Hardware

#### 3.8. Cloud Computing, IoT, and New Computing Platforms

## 4. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Institutional Review Board Statement

## Informed Consent Statement

## Data Availability Statement

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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**Figure 1.**A timeline of significant computing events in Persia (Iran) from 3200 BCE until 2020 (not-scaled).

**Figure 2.**Plimpton 322 is a Babylonian clay tablet with an illustration of Babylonian mathematics [14].

**Figure 3.**Tablet YBC-7289 (

**left**) and a transcription of the mathematical cuneiform text (

**right**) [15].

**Figure 4.**The tally stick with Ishango bone and related numbers [18].

**Figure 6.**Sample nodes and related calculations where numbers are added as units and tens and hundreds (adopted from [22]).

**Figure 7.**A page from al-Khwarizmi’s “Algebra” [22].

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Heidari, A.; Jafari Navimipour, N.; Unal, M.
The History of Computing in Iran (Persia)—Since the Achaemenid Empire. *Technologies* **2022**, *10*, 94.
https://doi.org/10.3390/technologies10040094

**AMA Style**

Heidari A, Jafari Navimipour N, Unal M.
The History of Computing in Iran (Persia)—Since the Achaemenid Empire. *Technologies*. 2022; 10(4):94.
https://doi.org/10.3390/technologies10040094

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Heidari, Arash, Nima Jafari Navimipour, and Mehmet Unal.
2022. "The History of Computing in Iran (Persia)—Since the Achaemenid Empire" *Technologies* 10, no. 4: 94.
https://doi.org/10.3390/technologies10040094