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Open AccessArticle

The Development and Proof of Principle Test of TRIAGE: A Practical Question Set to Identify and Discuss Medication-Related Problems in Community Pharmacy

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Nivel, Netherlands Institute for Health Services Research, 3500 BN Utrecht, The Netherlands
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Dutch Institute for Rational Use of Medicines, 3502 GB Utrecht, The Netherlands
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Amsterdam School of Communication Research (ASCoR), University of Amsterdam, 1001 NG Amsterdam, The Netherlands
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Utrecht Pharmacy Practice Network for Education and Research (UPPER), Utrecht University, 3584 CG Utrecht, The Netherlands
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BENU Netherlands B.V., 3604 BB Maarssen, The Netherlands
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Department of PharmacoTherapy, -Epidemiology & -Economics (PTEE), Groningen Research Institute of Pharmacy, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Groningen, 9700 AD Groningen, The Netherlands
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pharmacy 2020, 8(4), 178; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy8040178
Received: 15 May 2020 / Revised: 19 September 2020 / Accepted: 25 September 2020 / Published: 27 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Community Pharmacists and Optimization of Patient Medication Use)
The pharmacy counter is a good place to identify and discuss medication-related problems. However, there is a lack of practical communication tools to support pharmacy technicians (PTs) in initiating a conversation with patients. This study aimed to develop and test a practical set of questions for PTs, called TRIAGE, to identify problems during encounters. TRIAGE was developed based on insight from the literature, focus groups with PTs and pharmacists, and input from patients and experts. In 10 community pharmacies, 17 PTs used TRIAGE during encounters with patients who collected their cardiovascular medication. For each encounter, PTs registered the identified problems and suggested solutions. A total of 105 TRIAGE conversations were held, 66 for first refill and 39 for follow-up refill prescriptions. In 15 (23%) first refill prescription encounters, a problem was identified. These problems concerned forgetting to take the medication, a complex medication regime or (fear of) side effects. In three (8%) follow-up refill prescription encounters, a problem was identified. Most of the problems were solved on the spot. Pharmacy technicians indicated that they identified medication-related problems with TRIAGE that otherwise would be left unnoticed. They appreciated TRIAGE as a useful instrument for starting the conversation with patients about medication use. View Full-Text
Keywords: clinical pharmacy; community pharmacy; pharmaceutical care; patient-centered communication; patient-provider communication; medication experiences; medication-related problems; medication adherence; cardiovascular medication; practical question set clinical pharmacy; community pharmacy; pharmaceutical care; patient-centered communication; patient-provider communication; medication experiences; medication-related problems; medication adherence; cardiovascular medication; practical question set
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MDPI and ACS Style

Vervloet, M.; Zwikker, H.E.; Linn, A.J.; Koster, E.S.; Gipmans, S.G.H.; van Aarle, M.C.W.; van Dijk, L. The Development and Proof of Principle Test of TRIAGE: A Practical Question Set to Identify and Discuss Medication-Related Problems in Community Pharmacy. Pharmacy 2020, 8, 178.

AMA Style

Vervloet M, Zwikker HE, Linn AJ, Koster ES, Gipmans SGH, van Aarle MCW, van Dijk L. The Development and Proof of Principle Test of TRIAGE: A Practical Question Set to Identify and Discuss Medication-Related Problems in Community Pharmacy. Pharmacy. 2020; 8(4):178.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Vervloet, Marcia; Zwikker, Hanneke E.; Linn, Annemiek J.; Koster, Ellen S.; Gipmans, Suzan G.H.; van Aarle, Maaike C.W.; van Dijk, Liset. 2020. "The Development and Proof of Principle Test of TRIAGE: A Practical Question Set to Identify and Discuss Medication-Related Problems in Community Pharmacy" Pharmacy 8, no. 4: 178.

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