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Current Trends and Opportunities for Competency Assessment in Pharmacy Education–A Literature Review

1
School of Biomedical Sciences and Pharmacy, Faculty of Health and Medicine, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308, Australia
2
School of Medicine and Public Health, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308, Australia
3
Western Australian Centre for Rural Health, University of Western Australia, Geraldton, WA 6530, Australia
4
Faculty of Health, University of Technology Sydney, Ultimo, NSW 2007, Australia
5
School of Medicine and Public Health, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pharmacy 2019, 7(2), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy7020067
Received: 29 May 2019 / Revised: 10 June 2019 / Accepted: 14 June 2019 / Published: 18 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmacy Education; Competency and beyond)
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Abstract

An increasing emphasis on health professional competency in recent times has been matched by an increased prevalence of competency-based education models. Assessments can generate information on competence, and authentic, practice-based assessment methods are critical. Assessment reform has emerged as an academic response to the demands of the pharmacy profession and the need to equip graduates with the necessary knowledge, skills and attributes to face the challenges of the modern workforce. The objective of this review was to identify and appraise the range of assessment methods used in entry-level pharmacy education and examine current trends in health professional assessment. The initial search located 2854 articles. After screening, 36 sources were included in the review, 13 primary research studies, 12 non-experimental pharmacy research papers, and 11 standards and guidelines from the grey literature. Primary research studies were critically appraised using the Medical Education Research Study Quality Instrument (MERSQI). This review identified three areas in pharmacy practice assessment which provide opportunities for expansion and improvement of assessment approaches: (1) integrated approaches to performance assessment; (2) simulation-based assessment approaches, and; (3) collection of validity evidence to support assessment decisions. Competency-based assessment shows great potential for expanded use in pharmacy, but there is a need for further research and development to ensure its appropriate and effective use. View Full-Text
Keywords: assessment; health professionals; pharmacy; pharmacy student; pharmacist; competency-based education; simulation; Entrustable Professional Activities (EPAs); Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) assessment; health professionals; pharmacy; pharmacy student; pharmacist; competency-based education; simulation; Entrustable Professional Activities (EPAs); Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE)
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Croft, H.; Gilligan, C.; Rasiah, R.; Levett-Jones, T.; Schneider, J. Current Trends and Opportunities for Competency Assessment in Pharmacy Education–A Literature Review. Pharmacy 2019, 7, 67.

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