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Hospital and Community Pharmacists’ Perceptions of Which Competences Are Important for Their Practice

Pharmacolor Consultants Nancy, 12 rue de Versigny, Villers 54600, France
Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Granada (UGR), Campus Universitario de la Cartuja s/n, Granada 18701, Spain
School of Pharmacy, National and Kapodistrian University Athens, Panepistimiou 30, Athens 10679, Greece
Pharmacy Faculty, University of Tartu, Nooruse 1, Tartu 50411, Estonia
Pharmacy Faculty, University of Helsinki, Yliopistonkatu 4, P.O. Box 33-4, Helsinki 00014, Finland
Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Ljubljana, Askerceva cesta 7, Ljubljana 1000, Slovenia
Pharmacy Faculty, Jagiellonian University, UL, Golebia 24, Krakow 31-007, Poland
Pharmacy Faculty, University of Medicine and Pharmacy “Carol Davila” Bucharest, Dionisie Lupu 37, Bucharest 020021, Romania
European Association of Faculties of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine and Surgery, University of Malta, Msida MSD 2080, Malta
Faculty of Pharmacy, Université de Lille 2, Lille 59000, France
Department Pharmaceutical Sciences, Utrecht University, PO Box 80082, Utrecht 3508 TB, The Netherlands
Applied Health Research Unit, School of Life and Health Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham B4 7ET, UK
Medical Faculty, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Laarbeeklaan 103, Brussels 1090, Belgium
University Hospital of Leipzig, Centre for Patient Safety, Liebigstrasse 20, Leipzig 04103, Germany
European Association of Hospital Pharmacists, Rue Abbe Cuypers 3, Brussels 1040, Belgium
School of Pharmacy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK
Pharmacy Faculty, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Laarbeeklaan 103, Brussels 1090, Belgium
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Yvonne Perrie
Pharmacy 2016, 4(2), 21;
Received: 20 March 2016 / Revised: 24 May 2016 / Accepted: 3 June 2016 / Published: 15 June 2016
The objective of the PHAR-QA (Quality assurance in European pharmacy education and training) project was to investigate how competence-based learning could be applied to a healthcare, sectoral profession such as pharmacy. This is the first study on evaluation of competences from the pharmacists’ perspective using an improved Delphi method with a large number of respondents from all over Europe. This paper looks at the way in which hospital pharmacists rank the fundamental competences for pharmacy practice. European hospital pharmacists (n = 152) ranked 68 competences for pharmacy practice of two types (personal and patient care), arranged into 13 clusters. Results were compared to those obtained from community pharmacists (n = 258). Generally, hospital and community pharmacists rank competences in a similar way. Nevertheless, differences can be detected. The higher focus of hospital pharmacists on knowledge of the different areas of science as well as on laboratory tests reflects the idea of a hospital pharmacy specialisation. The difference is also visible in the field of drug production. This is a necessary competence in hospitals with requests for drugs for rare diseases, as well as paediatric and oncologic drugs. Hospital pharmacists give entrepreneurship a lower score, but cost-effectiveness a higher one than community pharmacists. This reflects the reality of pharmacy practice where community pharmacists have to act as entrepreneurs, and hospital pharmacists are managers staying within drug budgets. The results are discussed in the light of a “hospital pharmacy” specialisation. View Full-Text
Keywords: education; specialisation; practice education; specialisation; practice
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MDPI and ACS Style

Atkinson, J.; Sánchez Pozo, A.; Rekkas, D.; Volmer, D.; Hirvonen, J.; Bozic, B.; Skowron, A.; Mircioiu, C.; Sandulovici, R.; Marcincal, A.; Koster, A.; Wilson, K.A.; Van Schravendijk, C.; Frontini, R.; Price, R.; Bates, I.; De Paepe, K. Hospital and Community Pharmacists’ Perceptions of Which Competences Are Important for Their Practice. Pharmacy 2016, 4, 21.

AMA Style

Atkinson J, Sánchez Pozo A, Rekkas D, Volmer D, Hirvonen J, Bozic B, Skowron A, Mircioiu C, Sandulovici R, Marcincal A, Koster A, Wilson KA, Van Schravendijk C, Frontini R, Price R, Bates I, De Paepe K. Hospital and Community Pharmacists’ Perceptions of Which Competences Are Important for Their Practice. Pharmacy. 2016; 4(2):21.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Atkinson, Jeffrey, Antonio Sánchez Pozo, Dimitrios Rekkas, Daisy Volmer, Jouni Hirvonen, Borut Bozic, Agnieska Skowron, Constantin Mircioiu, Roxana Sandulovici, Annie Marcincal, Andries Koster, Keith A. Wilson, Chris Van Schravendijk, Roberto Frontini, Richard Price, Ian Bates, and Kristien De Paepe. 2016. "Hospital and Community Pharmacists’ Perceptions of Which Competences Are Important for Their Practice" Pharmacy 4, no. 2: 21.

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