Next Article in Journal
Medication Reconciliation at Discharge from Hospital: A Systematic Review of the Quantitative Literature
Previous Article in Journal
Use of Cumulative Assessments in U.S. Schools and Colleges of Pharmacy
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Pharmacy 2015, 3(2), 39-52;

Using Focus Groups to Validate a Pharmacy Vaccination Training Program

School of Psychological and Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Engineering, Health Science and the Environment, Charles Darwin University, Casuarina NT 0909, Australia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Keith A. Wilson
Received: 17 April 2015 / Revised: 1 June 2015 / Accepted: 4 June 2015 / Published: 12 June 2015
Full-Text   |   PDF [424 KB, uploaded 12 June 2015]


Introduction: Focus group methodology is commonly used to quickly collate, integrated views from a variety of different stakeholders. This paper provides an example of how focus groups can be employed to collate expert opinion informing amendments on a newly developed training program for integration into undergraduate pharmacy curricula. Materials and methods: Four focus groups were conducted, across three continents, to determine the appropriateness and reliability of a developed vaccination training program with nested injection skills training. All focus groups were comprised of legitimate experts in the field of vaccination, medicine and/or pharmacy. Results: Themes that emerged across focus groups informed amendments giving rise to a validated version of a training program. Discussion: The rigorous validation of the vaccination training program offers generalizable lessons to inform the design and validation of future training programs intended for the health sector and or pharmacy curricula. Using the knowledge and experience of focus group participants fostered collaborative problem solving and validation of material and concept development. The group dynamics of a focus group allowed synthesis of feedback in an inter-professional manner. Conclusions: This paper provides a demonstration of how focus groups can be structured and used by health researchers to validate a newly developed training program. View Full-Text
Keywords: pharmacy; focus groups; multidisciplinary; inter-professional; pharmacy curriculum pharmacy; focus groups; multidisciplinary; inter-professional; pharmacy curriculum
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Bushell, M.; Morrissey, H.; Ball, P. Using Focus Groups to Validate a Pharmacy Vaccination Training Program. Pharmacy 2015, 3, 39-52.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Pharmacy EISSN 2226-4787 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top