3. Content Focus of Game-Based Learning Activities in Pharmacy
4. Design of Games in Pharmacy Education
4.1. Overview of Technology Incorporated into Game Design
4.2. Game-Based Immersive Experiences
5. Assessment of Game-Based Learning
6.1. Future Steps
6.2. Key Points and Takeaways
- Game-based learning can provide an engaging environment for student learning.
- Game-based learning is utilized and developed for a variety of pharmacy content areas.
- Games with both advanced and minimal technology integration have the potential to improve educational outcomes.
- Current assessment of game-based learning is limited and not well-defined, as most use pre- and post-tests. In the future, perhaps more in-game assessments combined with expanded outlets for new ideas may advance dissemination and improvements in student learning.
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Content Areas Utilizing GBL|
|Therapeutic Decision Making|
|Medication Histories and Reconciliation|
|Not Pharmacotherapy Focused|
|Drug Information and Literature Evaluation|
Chemotherapy Good Manufacturing Practices
|Business of Healthcare|
|Technology Usage *||Design Features||References||Example Content Areas||Advantages/Disadvantages|
|High Tech/High Immersion||Advanced software simulations. Many 3D simulations. Some utilize player roles or avatars.||[14,15,16,17,18,26,27]||Community Pharmacy, Herbal Medicine, Immunology, Opioids||Advantage: High engagement, High quality experiences |
Disadvantage: Potential High cost, Time consuming to develop
|Moderate Technology/High Immersion||Simulations followed by quiz tools. Fantasy League focused on investment. Mystery case tool that assigns patient characteristics for a case.||[11,13,28,29,30,31]||Health Care Industry, Medication Histories||Advantage: High engagement|
Disadvantage: Time consuming to develop
|Moderate Technology/Low Immersion||Quiz format using online platforms/tools. Digital badges for completion of work.||[10,12,32,33]||Pharmacotherapy, Drug Information & Literature Evaluation||Advantage: Less cost and time consumption compared to high tech GBL activities |
Disadvantage: Less engaging than high tech/high immersion
|Low Technology/High Immersion||Escape Room, Amazing Race® design||[19,20,21,22,23,24,34,35]||Toxicology, Diabetes, Good Manufacturing Practices, Nonsterile Compounding, Pharmacy Leadership||Advantage: High engagement, Creative approach |
Disadvantage: Time consuming to develop
|Low Technology/Low Immersion||Jeopardy® questions, Name that drug||[36,37]||Review Style Games||Advantage: Ease of implementation in course, highly adaptable|
Disadvantage: Less engagement
|Authors of Study||Content Area||Design||Summary of Results||Effectiveness|
|Khalafalla et al. ||Immunology–Transplantation||Divided students into teams for quizzes, cases, and Kahoot||Improved team-based scores on quizzes||Improved scores on quiz or post survey|
|Nabhani et al. ||Drug Information||Web-based quiz to assess retrieval ability in a national formulary.||93% of students felt the game helped them in the course. 55% of students had improved confidence. Significant improvement in quiz scores (p < 0.05)|
|Kavanaugh et al. ||Treatment of Diabetes||Escape Room||Improved knowledge scores on post survey (p < 0.001)|
|Berthod et al. ||Chemotherapy Good Manufacturing Practices||Escape Room||Increased scores on post survey (p < 0.001)|
|Korenoski et al. ||Toxicology/Acute Care||Lock box kit stores clues to the game. Similar to escape room design.||Increased confidence related to toxicology and post-test scores|
|Caldas et al. ||Nonsterile compounding||Escape Room||Increased median assessment scores (p < 0.001)|
|Baker et al. ||Leadership Concepts||Escape Room||Significant increase in understanding of leadership concepts (p < 0.01)|
|Eukel et al. ||Diabetes||Escape Room||Improvement in knowledge (p < 0.01)|
|Richey Smith et al. ||Perspectives of patients in poverty||Online simulation using SPENT simulator tool||Improved post-survey scores (p < 0.001)|
|Devraj et al. ||Pharmacy Management Course||Software App utilizing timed quizzes and multiple levels||Engaging app, but knowledge scores did not improve||Beneficial but no improvement in knowledge scores|
|Berger et al. ||Cough Therapy||Software that created 3D simulation of community pharmacy||No difference in clinical knowledge scores, however students felt more confident|
|Bindoff et al. ||Community Pharmacy||Software game that created 3D simulation of community pharmacy||Students found the game enjoyable, but knowledge scores did not improve significantly|
|Ee et al. ||Herbal Medicine||Mobile game utilizing simulations. Players manage a city specializing in herbal products.||No significant association between time spent playing the game and quiz scores (p = 0.236). Students felt they gained knowledge.|
|Dicks et al. ||Nonprescription Pharmacy||Name that drug, Scavenger Hunts, Nonprescription Jeopardy||Examination scores did not improve in the GBL cohort of students. Improvements in course evaluations.|
|Dell et al. ||Pharmacotherapy Review||Kahoot! to review key concepts||Student scores on the review game correlated with course grades. Students submitted questions used in the game.||Focused measurement on confidence/engagement/enjoyment/collaboration, leadership, communication|
|Abraham et al. ||Opioid Safety||Developed software allows players to participate with a character in multiple levels||Themes identified were avoidance of medication misuse and engaging game design|
|Duffull et al. ||Therapeutic Decision Making||Patient simulation using software platform||Thematic analysis identified improvements of feeling in control and ability to make decisions|
|Sando et al. ||Medication Histories and Reconciliation||Mystery case tool that randomly assigned patient characteristics for students to evaluate||Students felt the activity was valuable and applicable.|
|Gorman ||Drug Information||Amazing Race challenges focused on using drug databases||Improved collaboration between instructors. More engaging for students|
|Cusick ||Immunology Review||Jeopardy style game using clickers||Students found the game engaging|
|Kayyali et al. ||Drug Information||Web-based software with quiz format and multiple player types to retrieve info from a national formulary||Most students would play the game again as a revision tool or because it was fun|
|Wolf et al. ||Business of Healthcare||Fantasy League focused on investment||Increased confidence in topics surveyed|
|Lam et al. ||Healthcare Communication||Software simulation including player avatars||Students found the software a worthwhile learning experience|
|Cain ||Pharmacy Management||Escape Room||Escape room more engaging than traditional classroom experience|
|Fajiculay et al. ||Drug Information and Literature Evaluation||Digital badges given to students for optional work||Increased confidence after obtaining a digital badge|
|Barber et al. ||Immunology||Software simulation using different player roles||Choice impacted enjoyment in the student experience|
|Fens et al. ||Community Pharmacy Patient Counseling and Prescription Processing||Software that simulates community pharmacy||Students value the game but want more direct feedback.|
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