Next Article in Journal
Adolescent ELLs Improve Their Academic English while Learning about the UN Online
Previous Article in Journal
Field-Testing Code-Switching Constraints: A Report on a Strategic Languages Project
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

Slot-and-Frame Schemas in the Language of a Polish- and English-Speaking Child: The Impact of Usage Patterns on the Switch Placement

1
Department of Applied Linguistics and Communication, Birkbeck College, University of London, Malet Street, London WC1E 7HX, UK
2
Department of Culture Studies, School of Humanities and Digital Sciences, Tilburg University, P.O. Box 90152, 5000 LE Tilburg, The Netherlands
3
Institute of British Studies, Leipzig University, GWZ, Beethovenstra├če 15, 04107 Leipzig, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Languages 2019, 4(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages4010008
Received: 27 November 2018 / Revised: 2 January 2019 / Accepted: 27 January 2019 / Published: 1 February 2019
  |  
PDF [910 KB, uploaded 28 March 2019]
  |     |  

Abstract

How does the bilingual child assemble her first multiword constructions? Can switch placement in bilingual combinations be explained by language usage? This study traces the emergence of frozen and semi-productive patterns throughout the diary collection period (0;10.10–2;2.00) to document the acquisition of constructions. Subsequently the focus falls on most frequently produced monolingual and bilingual combinations captured through 30 video recordings (1;10.16–2;5.11) which are linked to the diary data to confirm their productivity. First, we verify that like in monolingual development, frequency-based piecemeal acquisition of constructions can be reproduced in our bilingual diary data: in the child’s earliest combinations 87% are deemed as semi-productive slot-and-frame patterns. Second, video recordings show that productivity, understood as a function of type frequency, plays a role in determining the switch placement in early bilingual combinations only to some extent. A more accurate explanation for why frames from one language take slot fillers from another is their autonomous use and semantic independence. We also highlight limitations of input: while the child was raised with two languages separated in the input, she continued to switch languages which suggests that switching is developmental. View Full-Text
Keywords: bilingual; slot-and-frame; child codeswitching bilingual; slot-and-frame; child codeswitching
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Gaskins, D.; Backus, A.; Quick, A.E. Slot-and-Frame Schemas in the Language of a Polish- and English-Speaking Child: The Impact of Usage Patterns on the Switch Placement. Languages 2019, 4, 8.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Languages EISSN 2226-471X Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top