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Aerospace 2019, 6(3), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace6030031

Comparison of Constrained Parameterisation Strategies for Aerodynamic Optimisation of Morphing Leading Edge Airfoil

1
Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Padova, 35131 Padova, Italy
2
HIT09 s.r.l., 35137 Padova, Italy
3
College of Engineering, Swansea University, Swansea SA1 8EN, UK
4
Fraunhofer Institute for Structural Durability and System Reliability LBF, 64289 Darmstadt, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Current address: Piazzetta Bettiol 15, 35137 Padova, Italy.
Received: 31 January 2019 / Revised: 25 February 2019 / Accepted: 28 February 2019 / Published: 6 March 2019
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Abstract

In the context of ambitious targets for reducing environmental impact in the aviation sector, dictated by international institutions, morphing aircraft are expected to have potential for achieving the required efficiency increases. However, there are still open issues related to the design and implementation of deformable structures. In this paper, we compare three constrained parameterisation strategies for the aerodynamic design of a morphing leading edge, representing a potential substitute for traditional high-lift systems. In order to facilitate the structural design and promote the feasibility of solutions, we solve a multi-objective optimisation problem, including constraints on axial and bending strain introduced by morphing. A parameterisation method, inherently producing constant arc length curves, is employed in three variants, representing different morphing strategies which provide an increasing level of deformability, by allowing the lower edge of the flexible skin to slide and the gap formed with the fixed spar to be closed by a hatch. The results for the optimisation of a baseline airfoil show that the geometric constraints are effectively handled in the optimisation and the solutions are smooth, with a continuous variation along the Pareto frontier. The larger shape modification allowed by more flexible parameterisation variants enables an increase of the maximum lift coefficient up to 8.35%, and efficiency at 70% of stall incidence up to 4.26%. View Full-Text
Keywords: morphing leading edge; constrained parameterisation; aerodynamic optimisation morphing leading edge; constrained parameterisation; aerodynamic optimisation
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Magrini, A.; Benini, E.; Ponza, R.; Wang, C.; Khodaparast, H.H.; Friswell, M.I.; Landersheim, V.; Laveuve, D.; Contell Asins, C. Comparison of Constrained Parameterisation Strategies for Aerodynamic Optimisation of Morphing Leading Edge Airfoil. Aerospace 2019, 6, 31.

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