At the sub-national level, the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) proposes the analysis and contextualization of land degradation-neutrality (LDN) at a water catchment scale to provide decision support for the formulation of policies and programmes towards transformative LDN interventions. Building on a number of national LDN studies in Kenya, an approach for the implementation of LDN that is based on the spatial and temporal characterization of key land degradation and climate change variables was defined. For a selected water catchment area, the LDN baseline was computed, the drivers that affect land degradation and regeneration trends within the main land cover types were identified and described, the trends of key climate change variables were described, and appropriate sustainable land management interventions for the main land cover types were identified. A climate-smart landscape approach that delineated the catchment area into zones focused on adaptation, and both adaptation and mitigation objectives was then proposed. The operationalization of a climate-smart landscape will require significant investment to not only provide an understanding of the bio-physical processes and interactions occurring at the catchment level but also to develop the institutional and technical capacities of relevant actors. The landscape approach proposed for the catchment area has the potential to improve livelihoods and the productivity of ecosystems while concurrently facilitating synergies between land degradation, climate change, and other development objectives.
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