This study aims to set up a comprehensive approach to the Vulnerability and Impact Assessment (VIA) of river erosion and to suggest Ecosystem-based Adaptation (EbA) practices. Based on the analysis of vulnerability using the Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) framework, this paper discusses some of the significant climatic (rainfall pattern, temperature, seasonal drift, cold wave and heat wave) and non-climatic (river erosion, repetitive death of field crops and agrochemicals) forces in the Kazipur Upazila (Sirajganj District)—a river erosion-prone area of Bangladesh. Both primary (Key Informants Interview, Household Survey, and Focus Group Discussion) and secondary (climatic, literature review) data have been used in revealing the scenario of climatic stress. The analysis revealed a slightly increasing trend of mean annual temperature, and a decreasing trend of total annual rainfall from 1981 to 2015, which have been supported by people’s perception. This study found that river erosion, the increase of temperature and the late arrival of monsoon rain, excessive monsoon rainfall, high use of agrochemicals, and flow alterations are major drivers in the riverine ecosystem. These drivers are creating pressures on agricultural land, soil fertility, water availability and livelihood patterns of affected communities. Hence, floating bed cultivation, integrated pest management, use of cover crops, reforestation, the introduction of an agro-weather forecasting system, and a new variety of flood tolerant species have been suggested as potential EbA to cope with river bank erosion and to increase the capacity of the affected ecosystem.
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