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Open AccessArticle

A 133-Year Record of Climate Change and Variability from Sheffield, England

School of Earth and Ocean Sciences, Cardiff University, Wales CF10 3AT, UK
Rhodium Tutoring, Sheffield S8 8QW, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Christina Anagnostopoulou
Climate 2016, 4(3), 46;
Received: 8 May 2016 / Revised: 2 September 2016 / Accepted: 5 September 2016 / Published: 14 September 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Extremes: Observations and Impacts)
A 133-year length (1883–2015) daily climate record from Sheffield, England (53.38°N, 1.49°W) is analysed. Across the entire length of the record, there are significant warming trends annually and for all seasons, whereas precipitation shows a significant annual increase but the seasonal trends, whilst all positive, are not significant. Trends in extreme indices mirror the mean long-term warming and wetting signal. Record hot and cold daily temperatures and precipitation amounts are associated with summer anticyclonic conditions, an anomalous easterly winter jet stream and summer cyclonic activity, respectively. Whilst there are large uncertainties surrounding the calculation of return periods for the daily maximum, minimum and precipitation records from a single record, our best estimates suggest that in the current climate (2015), the existing records have return periods of 38, 529 and 252 years, respectively. The influence of several climate indices on mean and extreme indices are considered on seasonal scales, with the North Atlantic Oscillation displaying the strongest relationship. Future mean maximum temperature and precipitation alongside extreme indices representing the warmest and wettest day of the year are analysed from two downscaled climate model output archives under analysis periods of a 1.5 and 2 degree warmer world and the 2080–2099 end of 21st century period. For this mid-latitude location, there is minimal difference in model projections between a 1.5 and 2 degree world, but a significant difference between the 1.5/2 degree world and the end of century 2080–2099 period under the most severe climate warming scenarios. View Full-Text
Keywords: climate; Sheffield; extremes; global warming; cmip5; temperature; precipitation climate; Sheffield; extremes; global warming; cmip5; temperature; precipitation
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Cropper, T.E.; Cropper, P.E. A 133-Year Record of Climate Change and Variability from Sheffield, England. Climate 2016, 4, 46.

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