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Open AccessArticle

Fluctuation of Groundwater Levels and Recharge Patterns in Northern Ghana

1
Division of Hydrologic Sciences, Desert Research Institute, 2215 Raggio Parkway, Reno, NV 89512, USA
2
Ghana Integrated Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Project, World Vision Ghana, Savelugu, Ghana
3
Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Learning Center, West Africa Region, World Vision International, PO Box 12713, Niamey, Niger
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editors: Monica Ionita-Scholz and Nicole Mölders
Climate 2015, 3(1), 1-15; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli3010001
Received: 5 September 2014 / Accepted: 25 November 2014 / Published: 23 December 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Changes in Precipitation and Impacts on Regional Water Resources)
Evaluating groundwater levels and recharge patterns is part of sustainably managing the water supply and predicting the possibility of water shortages, especially in light of climate change, extreme events (floods/droughts), increasing population and development. In the northern region of Ghana, groundwater is increasingly relied upon as a source of potable water for rural populations, but seasonal and inter-annual fluctuations of groundwater levels and recharge patterns are not always known. The fluctuation of groundwater levels on a seasonal basis shows that groundwater levels at all sites increase in response to seasonal precipitation. On an annual basis, all sites show an overall net decline of groundwater levels over the study period, which may be associated with below-average departures of precipitation during five of the seven study years. The variability of recharge patterns among five sites is attributed to the spatio-temporal variability of precipitation and hydrogeologic site uniqueness. The overarching potential benefit of this study is to facilitate closing knowledge gaps and contribute to a foundation for a more robust evaluation of groundwater resources in the area, especially as more data become available. View Full-Text
Keywords: precipitation; water resources; climate precipitation; water resources; climate
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lutz, A.; Minyila, S.; Saga, B.; Diarra, S.; Apambire, B.; Thomas, J. Fluctuation of Groundwater Levels and Recharge Patterns in Northern Ghana. Climate 2015, 3, 1-15. https://doi.org/10.3390/cli3010001

AMA Style

Lutz A, Minyila S, Saga B, Diarra S, Apambire B, Thomas J. Fluctuation of Groundwater Levels and Recharge Patterns in Northern Ghana. Climate. 2015; 3(1):1-15. https://doi.org/10.3390/cli3010001

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lutz, Alexandra; Minyila, Solomon; Saga, Bansaga; Diarra, Samuel; Apambire, Braimah; Thomas, James. 2015. "Fluctuation of Groundwater Levels and Recharge Patterns in Northern Ghana" Climate 3, no. 1: 1-15. https://doi.org/10.3390/cli3010001

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