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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle

Where Freshness Matters in the Control Loop: Mixed Age-of-Information and Event-Based Co-Design for Multi-Loop Networked Control Systems

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Division of Decision and Control Systems, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 11428 Stockholm, Sweden
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Division of Information Science and Engineering, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 11428 Stockholm, Sweden
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2020, 9(3), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan9030043
Received: 11 July 2020 / Revised: 26 July 2020 / Accepted: 27 July 2020 / Published: 21 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Architectures and Protocols for Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks)
In the design of multi-loop Networked Control Systems (NCSs), wherein each control system is characterized by heterogeneous dynamics and associated with a certain set of timing specifications, appropriate metrics need to be employed for the synthesis of control and networking policies to efficiently respond to the requirements of each control loop. The majority of the design approaches for sampling, scheduling, and control policies include either time-based or event-based metrics to perform pertinent actions in response to the changes of the parameters of interest. We specifically focus in this article on Age-of-Information (AoI) as a recently-developed time-based metric and threshold-based triggering function as a generic Event-Triggered (ET) metric. We consider multiple heterogeneous stochastic linear control systems that close their feedback loops over a shared communication network. We investigate the co-design across the NCS and discuss the pros and cons with the AoI and ET approaches in terms of asymptotic control performance measured by Linear-Quadratic Gaussian (LQG) cost functions. In particular, sampling and scheduling policies combining AoI and stochastic ET metrics are proposed. It is argued that pure AoI functions that generate decision variables solely upon minimizing the average age irrespective of control systems dynamics may not be able to improve the overall NCS performance even compared with purely randomized policies. Our theoretical analysis is validated through several simulation scenarios. View Full-Text
Keywords: networked control systems; age-of-information; event-triggered sampling; scheduling architecture; resource constraint; asymptotic performance; estimation error networked control systems; age-of-information; event-triggered sampling; scheduling architecture; resource constraint; asymptotic performance; estimation error
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Mamduhi, M.H.; Champati, J.P.; Gross, J.; Johansson, K.H. Where Freshness Matters in the Control Loop: Mixed Age-of-Information and Event-Based Co-Design for Multi-Loop Networked Control Systems. J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2020, 9, 43.

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