- freely available
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2019, 8(3), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan8030045
2. Smart Agriculture and Related Works
- The combination of multiple technologies in one system and the presence of limitations leads to complexity when combining proprietary technologies. Moreover, many factors affect the price (e.g., farm, hardware design, and guiding documentation), although a basic package costs a minimum of $500 in [28,29,30,31].
- All IoT smart agriculture solutions on the market are Most IoT smart agriculture products are passive methods (i.e., manual). In some cases, they are connected to farm monitoring devices to act smartly.
- Many researchers have presented solutions for smart agriculture systems. However, these methods are restricted by the design-embedded board and the inflexibility of devices, as it may be necessary to attach additional sensors or to control two or more farms with the same mobile application.
- The standard IoT water management system is explained and designed. It can connect to the Internet through LoRa communication both manually and automatically with all hardware designs. The IoT box is designed to manage the IoT devices and obtain data from the farms.
- A system is possible connected the agriculture from farming based on rural areas efficiency to IoT system. Additionally, the implemented system is a good alternative for analyzing the communication between the gateway and nodes 1 and 2.
- Our smart watering system receives real-time data input from sensors embedded in a farm tunnel and other locations. The system then offers suggestions for watering schedules and capacity. An advantage provided by the sensors, used for two farms, are the transmission of an evaluation to the user’s mobile application, from where users can prepare a watering plan for the farms.
- Finally, our smart watering system is scheduled to a date and time which guarantees that the water level falls below the threshold in the tunnel farm. The system notifies the user and switches on the water pump (manual or automatic) in time to water the plants.
3. System Architecture
- The gateway performs the core functions of data collection from the nodes via LoRa, and then sends data to the cloud, via the WiFi ESP82666 module, and to the mobile application. Moreover, users can also control the node throughout the gateway with the use of the mobile app.
- Node 1 and sensor node 1 are designed for this case, as we assumed that the water pump machine is far from the sensor location.
- Node 2 was designed for orchard conditioners, with a topographic condition suitable for installing pumps directly in the farm without separating the sensor block.
3.1. Power System
3.2.1. Transmitter Module
- The IoT node system is expected to be deployed for two nodes with the distance between two nodes being a few km with complex terrain in rural areas. Therefore, the cost of the system needs to reduce to the lowest level possible, and the support services need to be optimized:
- The coverage of our system to around tens of km;
- The lower power consumption is composed possibly for an adaptive data rate and changes the output bit rate. Moreover, it depends on payload combined with chirp spread spectrum technology that effectively gives processing gain. In addition, LoRa Technology can easily plug into existing infrastructure and enables low-cost battery-operated IoT applications.
- Local Area Networks (LAN): The ad hoc’s area coverage is significantly more than other carrier network technologies. However, it still has some disadvantages. Applying the radio technology network for our system: for instance, WiFi or BLE technology set up, requires a significant number of nodes for the system. It will noticeably change the overall cost of the deployed infrastructure. A different choice might be to implement a ZigBee network or BLE technology. Because the system is not energy efficient, and admits a significant decrease in the power consumption of the end device nodes, this means that, although their current absorption levels are relatively low (40 mA ), their life expectancy provided by batteries is in some order.
- Low Power Consumption (LPWAN): The authors in  proposed characterizing great Area Networks LPWAN solutions as their more extensive transmission range allows for the establishment of a star or multi-star network with some APs. Allowing the sensor node to use the chief duty-cycling policies allows for turning off buttons for long periods. Finally, the price of this technology is meager when agreeing to use them in large quantities at no extra charge as in the situation of ISP co-operation.
- Global Area Networks (GAN): The global network is the most simple solution to deploy because it does not need access points or specific infrastructure implementations. Unfortunately, it has many other essential features, the first being the price: 3G technologies; still, the lowest of different techniques is always more expensive than other solutions. Furthermore, SIM is used, so they need subscription payments when preparing to deploy many of nodes and become insignificant. Additionally, the energy consumption needs to take into consideration that the average modern consumption of the third-generation mobile cellular system is many times higher than that of the IEEE 802.15.4 . Alternatively, a low-power wide-area network module  may be considered; however, obtaining it is unsuitable for applications with low energy use. Finally, in the rural areas, some ISP cannot support the Internet service for the users.
- Narrowband-Internet of Things: NB-IoT is the novel technology with a short form of Narrowband-Internet of Things and specified in LTE Release-13 . It is developed to meet the requirements of LPWA (Low-Power Wide-Area) networks. NB-IoT has a wide variety of applications for many fields such as personal, technology and industrial. The applications are wearables, smart bicycles, event detectors, smart garbage bins, smart metering, smart agriculture, and logistics tracking. Mainly, low power and long-range are the absolute essentials for IoT (Internet of Things), which is a significant concern with mainstream cellular technologies. The other advantages of the NB-IoT are scalability, quality of service and safety related to unlicensed LPWA networks and design, including the secure connections between small energy devices and a gateway.
3.2.2. ATmega2560 Microcontroller
3.2.3. WiFi ESP8266 Module
3.3. Node 1 and Sensor Node 1
3.3.1. ATmega328 Microcontroller
- 62 components in which there are 59 glued components and three pin components.
- The total number of different lines is 49 lines.
- There are three different line sizes of 80 mils, 25, and 10 mils following different wiring requirements.
- Line rules: do not cut wires, report faulty components and the minimum distance between wires is 10 mm.
- Size: 74.193 × 87.503 mm.
- Temperature sensor: DS18B20, , the popular solution for temperature control in smart agriculture systems is the application of standard digital sensors, for instance, DS18B20 integrated circuits in this research.
- Temperature-humidity sensor: DHT22  is a current sensor, which combines the temperature and humidity sensor; it provides a wider temperature range and better accuracy. In particular, it has low consumption and is better for most smart farming systems.
- Soil moisture sensor: SKU:SEN0193 , this soil moisture sensor measures soil moisture levels by capacitive sensing rather than resistive sensing like other sensors on the market. It is made of corrosion-resistant material, which provides a good solution for the user. Moreover, the sensor is simple to use—an analog sensor that works at a low voltage.
- Rain sensor: LM393, this is an analog sensor that operates at a low voltage, and the current sensor is for easily detecting rain .
- Water level and temperature pump: LM393 ; this is an analog sensor when the water level reaches below the threshold in the tunnel farm and checks the sensors. Our system communicates to the user and establishes a water pump to its switch on the state for sufficient watering of plants throughout a mobile application.
3.4. Node 2
- 54 components in which there are 51 glued components and three pin components.
- The total number of different lines is 44 lines.
- There are three different line sizes: 80 mils, 25 mils, and 10 mils, suitable for different wiring requirements.
- Size: 68.275 × 74.676 mm.
4. Operational Tests
4.1. Tests on the Sensors of the IoT
4.2. Test on Data Transmission through the LoRa Channel
- The system can be used to manage two or more independent farms on the same mobile application, which may have different growth schedules. The aim of this research was to use devices of the IoT system with lower prices that are easy to obtain.
- Removing the need for WiFi on the farm with the application of LoRa technology helps to save energy, lower costs, improve efficiency, and facilitate excellent communication between the farm and gateway.
- Control data are saved to the system memory to prevent power outages that result in data loss. Furthermore, the multitude of control modes makes it easier for users to manipulate the farm.
- Real-time updates are available directly from the Internet in order to enable the system to run more accurately.
- A lost WiFi connection can be detected and communicated to users for timely processing.
- Many different sensors are integrated to collect information related to tree care in order to improve crop productivity. Our strategy studies five parameters: temperature, temperature–humidity, soil moisture, rain, and water level.
- None of the previously mentioned approaches discuss and investigate the effect of energy consumption in smart irrigation systems. Furthermore, other methods frequently rely on soil moisture to determine the water needs of plants.
- The results of the test and the measurement of our smart watering system approach the standard watering procedure as a product of high-tech application. It has an economic efficiency that is at least 30% higher than the used technology.
Conflicts of Interest
|IoT||Internet of Things|
|2G||Second-Generation Cellular Technology|
|3G||Third-Generation Cellular Technology|
|LoRa||Long Range Radio Third-generation Technology|
|WoT||Web of Things|
|DoS||Denial of Service|
|LPWAN||Low Power Wide Area Network|
|WSN||Wireless Sensor Network|
|UART||Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter|
|RFID||Radio Frequency Identification|
|GPRS||General Packet Radio Service|
|UMTS||Universal Mobile Telecommunications System|
|LCD||Liquid Crystal Display|
|ADC||Analog Digital Converter|
|NB-IoT||Narrow Band IoT|
|RSSI||Received Signal Strength Indication|
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|Development of wireless sensor networks ||- Reduce costs. |
- Increase agricultural productivity.
|- Generates huge amounts of data.|
|Smartphone connectivity ||- Reduced capacity for real-time data processing |
- Significant negative impact on battery life.
|- Generates incalculable data. |
- Requires challenging storage of large amounts of data.
|A life cycle framework of green IoT-based agriculture ||- Recognizes
the quality of agriculture ingredients. |
- Improves yields as well as quality.
- Produces saleable agri-products for the market.
|- Requires corresponding theory and methodology to address emerging finance, operations, and management issues in the digitization of agriculture using IoT techniques.|
|Our model||- Reduces costs. |
- Increases agricultural productivity.
- Saves energy, increases efficiency, and enables excellent communication between farm and gateway.
- Improves yields as well as quality.
|- Requires challenging storage of large amounts of data.|
|Range (Km)||<0.1 Km||3 Km (urban areas)||2 Km||3 Km (urban areas)|
|Bandwidth (Hz)||<0.1 Hz||0.1 Hz||20 MHz||0.2 Hz|
|Minimum Coupling Loss (dB)||102||149||118||118|
|Standby Consumption (A)||3 A||0.5 A||10 mA||5 A|
|Tx Consumption ( mA)||30 mA||<70 mA||800 mA||<100 mA|
|Availability zones||Worldwide||Worldwide||Worldwide||Spec. zones|
|Frequency band (410 MHz–441 MHz)||433 MHz|
|Transmission power (21 dBm–30 dBm)||30 dBm (1W)|
|Supply voltage||5 V|
|Data rate (0.3 kbps–19.2 kbps)||2.4 kbps|
|Baud rate (1200–115,200 bps)||9600 bps|
|Sensor||Identifier||Output||Operation Range||Precision||Input Voltage Range||Consumption|
|Temperature||DS18B20||Digital||−55, +125||±0.5||3–5.5 V||1 mA|
|Humidity||SEN0193||Analog||Depends on calibration||±0.3%||3.3–5.5 V||5 mA|
|Temperature & Humidity||DHT22||PWM||−40, +80||±0.2, ±0.1%||3.3–6.0 V||2.5 mA|
|Water level||ILMPU5||Analog||−20, +80||±0.5||4.0 V||20 mA|
|Rain||LM393||Analog||−25, +85||±0.5||3.3–5.0 V||15 mA|
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