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Physical Layer Design in Wireless Sensor Networks for Fading Mitigation

ECE Department, The University of Auckland, 38 Princes Street, Auckland 1010, New Zealand
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2013, 2(3), 614-630;
Received: 26 June 2013 / Revised: 12 August 2013 / Accepted: 19 August 2013 / Published: 2 September 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers)
PDF [286 KB, uploaded 5 September 2013]


This paper presents the theoretical analysis, simulation results and suggests design in digital technology of a physical layer for wireless sensor networks. The proposed design is able to mitigate fading inside communication channel. To mitigate fading the chip interleaving technique is proposed. For the proposed theoretical model of physical layer, a rigorous mathematical analysis is conducted, where all signals are presented and processed in discrete time domain form which is suitable for further direct processing necessary for devices design in digital technology. Three different channels are used to investigate characteristics of the physical layer: additive white Gaussian noise channel (AWGN), AWG noise and flat fading channel and AWG noise and flat fading channel with interleaver and deinterleaver blocks in the receiver and transmitter respectively. Firstly, the mathematical model of communication system representing physical layer is developed based on the discrete time domain signal representation and processing. In the existing theory, these signals and their processing are represented in continuous time form, which is not suitable for direct implementation in digital technology. Secondly, the expressions for the probability of chip, symbol and bit error are derived. Thirdly, the communication system simulators are developed in MATLAB. The simulation results confirmed theoretical findings. View Full-Text
Keywords: wireless sensor networks; correlator receivers; physical layer; fading channel; bit error rate (BER). wireless sensor networks; correlator receivers; physical layer; fading channel; bit error rate (BER).

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Berber, S.; Chen, N. Physical Layer Design in Wireless Sensor Networks for Fading Mitigation. J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2013, 2, 614-630.

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