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Article

Effect of Daytime and Tree Canopy Height on Sampling of Cacopsylla melanoneura, a ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma mali’ Vector

1
Laimburg Research Centre, Laimburg 6, Pfatten (Vadena), IT-39040 Auer (Ora), South Tyrol, Italy
2
Department of Botany and Zoology, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, 61137 Brno, Czech Republic
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Plants 2020, 9(9), 1168; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9091168
Received: 10 August 2020 / Accepted: 3 September 2020 / Published: 9 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Phytoplasma Research)
The psyllids Cacopsylla melanoneura and Cacopsylla picta reproduce on apple (Malus × domestica) and transmit the bacterium ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma mali’, the causative agent of apple proliferation. Adult psyllids were collected by the beating-tray method from lower and upper parts of the apple tree canopy in the morning and in the afternoon. There was a trend of catching more emigrant adults of C.melanoneura in the morning and in the lower part of the canopy. For C.melanoneura remigrants, no differences were observed. The findings regarding the distribution of adults were reflected by the number of nymphs collected by wash-down sampling. The density of C.picta was too low for a statistical analysis. The vector monitoring and how it is commonly performed, is suitable for estimating densities of C.melanoneura. Nevertheless, above a certain temperature threshold, prediction of C.melanoneura density might be skewed. No evidence was found that other relatively abundant psyllid species in the orchard, viz. Baeopelma colorata, Cacopsylla breviantennata, Cacopsylla brunneipennis, Cacopsylla pruni and Trioza urticae, were involved in ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma mali’ transmission. The results of our study contribute to an advanced understanding of insect vector behavior and thus have a practical impact for an improved field monitoring. View Full-Text
Keywords: apple proliferation; phytoplasma; insect; vector; Cacopsylla picta; Psyllidae; monitoring; beating tray; wash down; nymph; temperature apple proliferation; phytoplasma; insect; vector; Cacopsylla picta; Psyllidae; monitoring; beating tray; wash down; nymph; temperature
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MDPI and ACS Style

Barthel, D.; Kerschbamer, C.; Panassiti, B.; Malenovský, I.; Janik, K. Effect of Daytime and Tree Canopy Height on Sampling of Cacopsylla melanoneura, a ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma mali’ Vector. Plants 2020, 9, 1168. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9091168

AMA Style

Barthel D, Kerschbamer C, Panassiti B, Malenovský I, Janik K. Effect of Daytime and Tree Canopy Height on Sampling of Cacopsylla melanoneura, a ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma mali’ Vector. Plants. 2020; 9(9):1168. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9091168

Chicago/Turabian Style

Barthel, Dana, Christine Kerschbamer, Bernd Panassiti, Igor Malenovský, and Katrin Janik. 2020. "Effect of Daytime and Tree Canopy Height on Sampling of Cacopsylla melanoneura, a ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma mali’ Vector" Plants 9, no. 9: 1168. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9091168

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