Peony is an important medicinal and ornamental plant widely cultivated in the world. Its seeds as a functional food source have attracted much more attention in recent years, and they are rich in monoterpene glycosides and phenolic compounds. To assess the application value of wild peony seeds, the main chemical composition and content, such as total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), total flavanol content (TAC), and α and γ tocopherol content, of the seeds from 12 species and 2 subspecies were systematically explored in the present study. Four different antioxidant assays (DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, and HRSA), antibacterial, and antifungal assays were also performed using various in vitro biochemical methods. The results showed that the seeds of P. delavayi
, P. obovata.
and P. rockii.
had a high content of TPC, TFC, and TAC, respectively. Twenty-five individual chemical compounds were qualitatively and quantitatively measured by HPLC-MS, with paeoniflorin being the most abundant compound in all samples. P. mairei
was grouped individually into a group via hierarchical cluster analysis according to its relatively highest monoterpene glycosides and TPC content. This work has provided a basis for the development and utilization of seeds for the selection of wild peony species of dietary interest.
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