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Article

The Potential Risk of Plant-Virus Disease Initiation by Infected Tomatoes

1
Department of Plant Pathology and Weed Research, Agricultural Research Organization, The Volcani Center, 68 HaMaccabim Road, P.O.B 15159 Rishon LeZion 7505101, Israel
2
The Robert H. Smith Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environment, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot 761001, Israel
3
Department of Ornamental Plants and Agricultural Biotechnology, Agricultural Research Organization, The Volcani Center, 68 HaMaccabim Road, P.O.B 15159 Rishon LeZion 7505101, Israel
4
Israel Institute for Biological Research (IIBR), Ness-Ziona 74100, Israel
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Plants 2020, 9(5), 623; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9050623
Received: 1 April 2020 / Revised: 7 May 2020 / Accepted: 11 May 2020 / Published: 14 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Virus Epidemiology)
During 2019, tomato fruits showing viral-like symptoms of marbled yellow spots were abundant in Israel. The new symptoms were distinctive from those typical of tomato brown rugose fruit virus (ToBRFV) infection but resembled symptoms of pepino mosaic virus (PepMV) infection. RT-PCR analysis and the serological tests (enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, western blot and in situ immunofluorescence) revealed and confirmed the presence of both the tobamovirus ToBRFV and the potexvirus PepMV in the symptomatic fruits. A mixture of rod-like and filamentous particles, characteristic of viruses belonging to tobamovirus and potexvirus genera, was visualized by transmission electron microscopy of the tomato fruit viral extract. Sanger sequencing of amplified PepMV-coat protein gene segments showed ~98% sequence identity to the Chilean (CH2)-strain. In a biological assay testing the contribution of traded infected tomatoes to the establishment of tomato plant disease, we applied direct and indirect inoculation modes using Tm-22-resistant tomato plants. The results, assessed by disease symptom development along with serological and molecular analyses, showed that the ToBRFV and PepMV co-infected fruits were an effective inoculum source for disease spread only when fruits were damaged. Importantly, intact fruits did not spread the viral disease. These results added a new factor to disease epidemiology of these viruses. View Full-Text
Keywords: primary viral inoculum; mechanical transmission; tomato brown rugose fruit virus; pepino mosaic virus primary viral inoculum; mechanical transmission; tomato brown rugose fruit virus; pepino mosaic virus
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MDPI and ACS Style

Klap, C.; Luria, N.; Smith, E.; Bakelman, E.; Belausov, E.; Laskar, O.; Lachman, O.; Gal-On, A.; Dombrovsky, A. The Potential Risk of Plant-Virus Disease Initiation by Infected Tomatoes. Plants 2020, 9, 623. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9050623

AMA Style

Klap C, Luria N, Smith E, Bakelman E, Belausov E, Laskar O, Lachman O, Gal-On A, Dombrovsky A. The Potential Risk of Plant-Virus Disease Initiation by Infected Tomatoes. Plants. 2020; 9(5):623. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9050623

Chicago/Turabian Style

Klap, Chen, Neta Luria, Elisheva Smith, Elena Bakelman, Eduard Belausov, Orly Laskar, Oded Lachman, Amit Gal-On, and Aviv Dombrovsky. 2020. "The Potential Risk of Plant-Virus Disease Initiation by Infected Tomatoes" Plants 9, no. 5: 623. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9050623

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