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Article

Phylogeny, Taxonomy, and Biogeography of Pterocarya (Juglandaceae)

1
Eastern China Conservation Center for Wild Endangered Plant Resources, Shanghai Chenshan Botanical Garden, Chenhua Road No.3888, Songjiang, Shanghai 201602, China
2
Department of Biology and Botanic Garden, University of Fribourg, Chemin du Musée 10, CH-1700 Fribourg, Switzerland
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Shanghai Chenshan Plant Science Research Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chenhua Road No.3888, Songjiang, Shanghai 201602, China
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Centre for Integrative Conservation, Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xuefu Rd. 88, Wuhua, Kunming 650223, China
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Field Center for Sustainable Agriculture and Forestry, Faculty of Agriculture, Niigata University, Sado-city, Niigata 950-2181, Japan
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Faculty of Natural Resources, Department of Forestry, Tarbiat Modares University (TMU), Mazandaran 14115-111, Iran
7
Natural History Museum Fribourg, Chemin du Musée 6, CH-1700 Fribourg, Switzerland
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Plants 2020, 9(11), 1524; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9111524
Received: 5 October 2020 / Revised: 2 November 2020 / Accepted: 6 November 2020 / Published: 9 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genetic Diversity and Conservation of Woody Species)
Relict species play an important role in understanding the biogeography of intercontinental disjunctions. Pterocarya (a relict genus) is the valuable model taxon for studying the biogeography of East Asian versus southern European/West Asian disjunct patterns. This disjunction has not been as well studied as others (e.g., between Eastern Asia and North America). Several phylogenetic studies on Pterocarya have been conducted, but none have provided a satisfactory phylogenetic resolution. Here, we report the first well-resolved phylogeny of Pterocarya using restriction site-associated DNA sequencing data based on the sampling of all taxa across the entire distribution area of the genus. Taxonomic treatments were also clarified by combining morphological traits. Furthermore, fossil-calibrated phylogeny was used to explore the biogeography of Pterocarya. Our results support the existence of two sections in Pterocarya, which is in accordance with morphological taxonomy. Section Platyptera comprises three species: P. rhoifolia, P. macroptera, and P. delavayi. Section Pterocarya also comprises three species: P. fraxinifolia, P. hupehensis, and P. stenoptera. The divergence between the two sections took place during the early Miocene (20.5 Ma). The formation of the Gobi Desert and climate cooling of northern Siberia in the Middle Miocene (15.7 Ma) might have caused the split of the continuous distribution of this genus and the formation of the East Asian versus southern European/West Asian disjunct pattern. Lastly, the divergence between P. hupehensis and P. stenoptera as well as between P. rhoifolia and P. macroptera/P. delavayi (10.0 Ma) supports the late Miocene diversification hypothesis in East Asia. View Full-Text
Keywords: divergence time; East Asia-southern Caucasus disjunction; Late Miocene diversification; phylogenomic relationship; refugia; restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq) divergence time; East Asia-southern Caucasus disjunction; Late Miocene diversification; phylogenomic relationship; refugia; restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq)
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MDPI and ACS Style

Song, Y.-G.; Li, Y.; Meng, H.-H.; Fragnière, Y.; Ge, B.-J.; Sakio, H.; Yousefzadeh, H.; Bétrisey, S.; Kozlowski, G. Phylogeny, Taxonomy, and Biogeography of Pterocarya (Juglandaceae). Plants 2020, 9, 1524. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9111524

AMA Style

Song Y-G, Li Y, Meng H-H, Fragnière Y, Ge B-J, Sakio H, Yousefzadeh H, Bétrisey S, Kozlowski G. Phylogeny, Taxonomy, and Biogeography of Pterocarya (Juglandaceae). Plants. 2020; 9(11):1524. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9111524

Chicago/Turabian Style

Song, Yi-Gang, Ying Li, Hong-Hu Meng, Yann Fragnière, Bin-Jie Ge, Hitoshi Sakio, Hamed Yousefzadeh, Sébastien Bétrisey, and Gregor Kozlowski. 2020. "Phylogeny, Taxonomy, and Biogeography of Pterocarya (Juglandaceae)" Plants 9, no. 11: 1524. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9111524

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