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Article

Ecotoxicological Effects of Ibuprofen on Plant Growth of Vigna unguiculata L.

1
Department of Botany and Microbiology, College of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
2
Water and Soil Quality Research Group, Department of Environmental Chemistry, IDAEA-CSIC, Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona, Spain
3
Environmental and Food Safety Research Group (SAMA-UV), Desertification Research Centre CIDE (CSIC-UV-GV), Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Valencia, Av. Vicent Andrés Estellés s/n, 46100 Burjassot, Valencia, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Plants 2020, 9(11), 1473; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9111473
Received: 21 October 2020 / Revised: 29 October 2020 / Accepted: 29 October 2020 / Published: 2 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Metabolites and Regulation under Environmental Stress)
Despite the prevalence of the common pharmaceutical ibuprofen (IBU) in water and sediments worldwide, the effects of IBU on plants are largely unknown. This study was designed to assess the ecotoxicological effects of emerging pharmaceutical pollutant IBU on plant growth and development in a series of toxicity experiments using cowpea (Vigna unguiculata). Plant growth parameters (morphological and physicochemical) were investigated under a series of IBU concentrations (0, 400, 800, 1200, 1600, 2000 ppm IBU). IBU exposure reduced the shoot and root lengths, fresh and dry weights, leaf area, and chlorophyll a and b, carotenoid, total chlorophyll, mineral (K and Mg), glutathione reductase, and soluble protein contents. Simultaneously, increases in Ca and Mn contents, sodium translocation from roots to shoots, H2O2, malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, and IBU uptake were observed. The amount of bioaccumulated IBU varied between 7% and 8%. IBU was translocated from roots to shoots with a translocation factor of 3–16%. The IC50 values for biomass and plant length were 1253 and 1955 ppm IBU, respectively, which is much higher than the reported levels of IBU in the environment. This study demonstrates that cowpea plants develop several morphological and physicochemical adaptations to cope under ibuprofen stress; environmentally relevant concentrations of IBU are unlikely to produce negative impacts. View Full-Text
Keywords: ibuprofen; Vigna unguiculata; pharmaceutical pollutant; seed germination; plant growth; enzyme activities; IBU toxicity ibuprofen; Vigna unguiculata; pharmaceutical pollutant; seed germination; plant growth; enzyme activities; IBU toxicity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wijaya, L.; Alyemeni, M.; Ahmad, P.; Alfarhan, A.; Barcelo, D.; El-Sheikh, M.A.; Pico, Y. Ecotoxicological Effects of Ibuprofen on Plant Growth of Vigna unguiculata L. Plants 2020, 9, 1473. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9111473

AMA Style

Wijaya L, Alyemeni M, Ahmad P, Alfarhan A, Barcelo D, El-Sheikh MA, Pico Y. Ecotoxicological Effects of Ibuprofen on Plant Growth of Vigna unguiculata L. Plants. 2020; 9(11):1473. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9111473

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wijaya, Leonard, Mohammed Alyemeni, Parvaiz Ahmad, Ahmed Alfarhan, Damia Barcelo, Mohamed A. El-Sheikh, and Yolanda Pico. 2020. "Ecotoxicological Effects of Ibuprofen on Plant Growth of Vigna unguiculata L." Plants 9, no. 11: 1473. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9111473

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