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Open AccessArticle

Antimicrobial Activity of Metabolites Secreted by the Endophytic Bacterium Frateuria defendens

1
Department of Biotechnology Engineering, ORT Braude College of Engineering, Karmiel 2161002, Israel
2
Department of Entomology, Agricultural Research Organization, Newe Ya’ar Research Center, Bet Shearim 3657800, Israel
3
Department of Plant Pathology and Weed Research, Agricultural Research Organization, Volcani Center, Rishon LeZion 7534509, Israel
4
Shamir Research Institute, Qatsrin 1290000, Israel
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Plants 2020, 9(1), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9010072 (registering DOI)
Received: 4 December 2019 / Revised: 23 December 2019 / Accepted: 3 January 2020 / Published: 6 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis and Control of Plant Bacterial Diseases)
Candidatus Phytoplasma, the causative agent of yellows disease, inflicts substantial damage on several hundred plant species including perennials and annual plants. The endophytic bacterium Frateuria defendens reduces the symptoms of yellows disease in a number of agricultural crops. One possible mode of action is that the bacterium secretes antimicrobial metabolites. To test this hypothesis, the substances secreted by the endophyte during 10 days of growth in an artificial medium were identified by GC-MS (gas chromatography–mass spectrometry). Synthetic analogues to these substances were then used on periwinkle, a nurse culture plant infected by phytoplasma. Phytoplasma quantities were evaluated by quantitative PCR, and disease symptoms were monitored and recorded. It was found that specific compounds identified by the biochemical analysis caused a significant reduction in both the titer of phytoplasma and the disease symptoms in periwinkle when compared to untreated infected plants. Further research is required to examine the potential of these compounds as an effective treatment against yellows disease.
Keywords: Frateuria defendens; yellows disease; endophytic bacteria; Phytoplasma; 4-quinolinecarboxaldehyde; 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde; Metabolites Frateuria defendens; yellows disease; endophytic bacteria; Phytoplasma; 4-quinolinecarboxaldehyde; 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde; Metabolites
MDPI and ACS Style

Naama-Amar, A.; Gitman, S.; Shoshana, N.; Bahar, O.; Naor, V.; Zchori-Fein, E.; Iasur-Kruh, L. Antimicrobial Activity of Metabolites Secreted by the Endophytic Bacterium Frateuria defendens. Plants 2020, 9, 72.

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