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Production of White, Red and Black Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd Var. Real) Protein Isolates and Its Hydrolysates in Germinated and Non-Germinated Quinoa Samples and Antioxidant Activity Evaluation

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CIT-RIO NEGRO Sede Atlántica, Universidad Nacional de Rio Negro (UNRN-CONICET), Don Bosco y Leloir s/n, Rio Negro Viedma CP 8500, Argentina
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Research Department, Faculty of Health Sciences, Technical University of Babahoyo. Av. Universitaria Km 21/2 Av. Montalvo. Babahoyo CP 120301, Ecuador
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Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Production Sciences, ESPOL Polytechnic University, Campus Gustavo Galindo Km 30.5 Vía Perimetral, P.O. Box 09-01-5863 Guayaquil, Ecuador
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Plants 2019, 8(8), 257; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants8080257
Received: 30 June 2019 / Revised: 27 July 2019 / Accepted: 29 July 2019 / Published: 30 July 2019
Red, black and white seeds quinoa were germinated at 28 °C during 24 (G1), 48 and 72 h (G3). Red quinoa presented a higher percentage of germination with a value of 46% of germination at 72 h. Quinoa protein isolate (QPI) was obtained by alkaline extraction (pH 8.0) followed by an isoelectric precipitation (pH 4.5) from white, red and black quinoa seeds, germinated QPI-G1 or QPI-G3 and non-germinated QPI-NG, Chenopodium quinoa Willd var. Real. QPI-G1, QPI-G3 and QPI-NG were subject to a simulated gastric digestion (DG) and in vitro duodenal digestion (DD). The antioxidant activity was evaluated using the 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) methods. Gastric and duodenal digest of QPI-NG and QPI-G1 and QPI-G3 from white, red and black quinoa presented antioxidant activity. QPI-G1-DD of white quinoa presented the highest antioxidant activity with a DPPH value of 167.98 µmoL TE/g of digest, QPI-G1-DD of red quinoa with an ABTS value of 204.86 µmoL TE/g of digest and QPI-G1-DD of black quinoa with an ORAC value of 401.42 µmoL TE/g of digest. QPI-G3-DD of white quinoa presented higher antioxidant activity with a DPPH value of 186.28 µmoL TE/g of sample, QPI-G3-DD of red quinoa with an ABTS value of 144.06 µmoL TE/g of digest and QPI-G3-DD of black quinoa with an ORAC value of 395.14 µmoL TE/g of digest. The inhibition of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in the zebrafish embryo model (Danio rerio) was evaluated. Protein profiles of QPI from white, red and black from germinated quinoa and non-germinated quinoa were similar with proteins between 10 kDa to 100 kDa with the presence of globulins 11S and 7S and 2S albumins. View Full-Text
Keywords: quinoa; quinoa protein concentrates; antioxidant activity; hydrolysates; zebrafish embryos quinoa; quinoa protein concentrates; antioxidant activity; hydrolysates; zebrafish embryos
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MDPI and ACS Style

Piñuel, L.; Boeri, P.; Zubillaga, F.; Barrio, D.A.; Torreta, J.; Cruz, A.; Vásquez, G.; Pinto, A.; Carrillo, W. Production of White, Red and Black Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd Var. Real) Protein Isolates and Its Hydrolysates in Germinated and Non-Germinated Quinoa Samples and Antioxidant Activity Evaluation. Plants 2019, 8, 257. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants8080257

AMA Style

Piñuel L, Boeri P, Zubillaga F, Barrio DA, Torreta J, Cruz A, Vásquez G, Pinto A, Carrillo W. Production of White, Red and Black Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd Var. Real) Protein Isolates and Its Hydrolysates in Germinated and Non-Germinated Quinoa Samples and Antioxidant Activity Evaluation. Plants. 2019; 8(8):257. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants8080257

Chicago/Turabian Style

Piñuel, Lucrecia, Patricia Boeri, Fanny Zubillaga, Daniel Alejandro Barrio, Joaquin Torreta, Andrea Cruz, Grace Vásquez, Adelita Pinto, and Wilman Carrillo. 2019. "Production of White, Red and Black Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd Var. Real) Protein Isolates and Its Hydrolysates in Germinated and Non-Germinated Quinoa Samples and Antioxidant Activity Evaluation" Plants 8, no. 8: 257. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants8080257

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